A rise in nationalism amongst European countries in the latter half of the nineteenth century spelled interesting repercussions for the concept of the museum. Previously a place to view only works of the past, demand now surged for displays and exhibitions that featured contemporary and local artists. Thus in 1918 the Palais du Luxembourg was transformed into the Musée des Artistes Vivants (Museum of Living Artists), while the Louvre, which had been opened to the public in 1793, remained a museum dedicated to the past.
Paintings considered significant enough were to be moved to the Louvre before ten years had elapsed from the death of the artist. Meanwhile, more space was created in the Musée du Luxembourg in 1922 with the removal of all works from foreign schools to the Musée du Jeu de Paume. Those Impressionist works that were so admired by Hemingway (the Cézannes, the Manets and the Monets) were moved to a separate display in the Jeu de Paume in 1947. They would find another home in the Musée d'Orsay in 1986.
Hemingway's exposure to, and appreciation of, art in 1920s Paris owed a lot to his friendship with Gertrude Stein, although she was not the only influence. His earlier visits to Chicago's Art Institute gave him a basic familiarity with the Impressionists before he was ever brought into their inner circles -- or, in the case of Miró and Masson, into their studios -- by Stein. Michael Reynolds writes that despite being merely a minor collector, Hemingway chose well, 'finally owning five Massons, an enormous Miró, a stunning Paul Klee, some Fernand Léger sketches and two oils by Juan Gris -- paintings now worth at least two million dollars.'
However, it was Cézanne who appeared to provide the most inspiration for the author, and it is consequently this artistic connection that has been the most widely documented. Hemingway was particularly impressed with two of Cézanne's pieces: 'House of the Hanged Man' and the portrait of Madame Cézanne.