Horse racing featured highly amongst Hemingway's many sporting interests. As Brendan Gallagher points out in his Telegraph article, 'Ernest Hemingway's sporting Paris': 'Two sports chiefly occupied his thoughts and energies in Paris - cycling and horse-racing - while he also earned useful money in the early 20s as a sparring partner at Boxing gyms around the French capital.'
As with so many other aspects of society in the 'Roaring Twenties', horse racing (like many other competitive sports) was experiencing a golden age, and its accessibility provided another exciting arena for the young Ernest -- who hailed from a rather more conservative background -- to explore. 'On the pelouse [lawn] at Auteuil,' writes Michael Reynolds, 'where bets were laid out in five franc increments, for less than a dollar Ernest and Hadley could get the thrill of winning or losing without risking serious money. Hemingway approached this new game with the same enthusiasm he focused on all of his interests. The jocks, swipes and trainers lived in a special world, a place apart with unwritten rules of behaviour. They were their own society, separate from the grandstand crowd and living on the outskirts of respectability.' (Michael Reynolds, Hemingway the Paris Years, New York and London: W. W. Norton and Company, 1999, p. 32). The information Hemingway gleaned from the track would, of course, be digested and then incorporated into many of his works, 'My Old Man' and A Farewell to Arms among them.
public baths of the Middle Ages had been subject to great suspicion -- plague, syphilis and prostitution amongst their many reported perils -- the arrival of canvas changing rooms on the banks of the Parisian rivers in 1688 hailed the beginning of a long-standing craze for swimming baths. In fact, by 1850 the Gymnase Nautique des Champs Élysées had developed an early synthesised version of the modern-day aqua and amusement park. However, it wasn't until the late 19th-early 20th century, with an increased attention to personal cleanliness, that bathhouses truly became available to the European public at large. Initially admitting just men or only allowing segregated washing, family bathing was not truly permitted in Britain until 1914.
Many of the dishes that Hemingway enjoyed and wrote about, such as the Mexican Crab at Pruniers, have been collected in The Hemingway Cookbook by Craig Boreth.
Hemingway first befriended British Army soldier, Eric 'Chink' Dorman-Smith -- who later became godfather to the Hemingways' son -- in Italy in 1918.
In his book, Hemingway, Kenneth Schuyler Lynn elaborates that the meeting took place 'on the night of Armistice Day at the Officers' Club' (p. 90), and, at twenty-three, Chink had already ascended to the eminent rank of major in the Fifth Northumberland Fusiliers. The trip that Hemingway recalls occurred in May 1922 when the three friends followed the trail over the Great St Bernard Pass into Italy. However, Chink's memories of events seem slightly different to the Hemingways' fond musings:
Hem developed a form of mountain sickness and Hadley had to help him on. I took both their packs. The journey became something of a nightmare, with Hem sick, Hadley worried and myself carrying two packs forward at a time and returning for the odd one. (Michael Reynolds, Hemingway the Paris Years, p. 53).
Hadley and Hemingway had already spent a good deal of the morning arguing, whilst Hadley -- wearing low-cut Oxfords -- could hardly walk by the time they reached their destination of Aosta. The three then took the train to Milan, Hemingway keen to show Hadley the places that had become familiar while he recovered from his war-wounds, and Chink returning to his military post in Germany. It is thought that Chink was the model upon which Ernest built the character of Colonel Richard Cantwell in his 1950 novel, Across the River and into the Trees.
Although the background of Hemingway's World War I friend, Captain James Gamble, has been subject to debate -- some painting him as a homosexual from Cincinnati and others maintaining he was, in fact, a heterosexual from Pennsylvania -- 'Chief', as Ernest called him, obviously left an impression on the young writer.
Kenneth Schuyler Lynn cites a letter that Hemingway penned to the older Red Cross captain following the latter's invitation to join him in Italy as his secretary and companion. In it Ernest declared: 'Every minute of every day I kick myself for not being in Taormina with you. It makes me so damned homesick for Italy and whenever I think I might be there and with you.' (Hemingway, p. 90). It was Jim Gamble who cared for Hemingway when he returned to Milan from the Monte Grappa front suffering from jaundice.
Over 23-24 August 1914, the Battle of Mons was the first major battle of World War I. It represented the initial clash between the Allies and the German forces in the Belgian territory of the same name. Although the British were forced to retreat, the battle was considered a success, as they managed to hold off the German attack and inflict heavy casualties despite being outnumbered almost 3 to 1.
The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst was not formed until 1947, but a college was constructed at Sandhurst in 1802 for the purpose of training cadets as officers. Undergoing further enlargement in 1912, it was generally accepted that attendance at the facility would lead to a commission.
Dublin-born James Joyce returned to Paris with his family in 1920 -- at the invitation of Ezra Pound -- after moving around for many years in Zurich and Trieste. He had met Irish chambermaid Nora Barnacle in 1904, and the day of their first date -- 16th June -- would be the basis for Joyce's seminal work, Ulysses. the couple's two children, Giorgio and Lucia, were born in Trieste in 1905 and 1907 respectively, yet James and Lucia's complex relationship -- which was famously passionate at the outset -- did not lead to formal marriage until 1931.
Hemingway first met Joyce at Sylvia Beach's bookstore in 1922, and the two would enjoy many alcohol-fuelled outings together. Joyce suffered from chronic glaucoma, enduring periods of total blindness, and underwent several eye operations during his years in Paris.
The racing tale is 'My Old Man', which would be published in his first short story collection, In Our Time (1923). The story, told from the point of view of a jockey's twelve-year-old son, was one of the few pieces to survive being lost when Hadley left a trunk of Hemingway's manuscripts unattended in a train compartment. Fortunately, before leaving Paris, Hemingway had mailed the story -- of which he was quite proud -- to the Toronto Star's Greg Clark, as well as leaving a copy with journalist and editor, Lincoln Steffens (see 'Bookmark' for page 42).
Hemingway's Canadian friend, Mike Ward, has since been written into Howard Engel's 'quasi-historic mise en scène', Murder In Montparnasse. The mystery novel, set in Hemingway's Paris, is narrated through the character of Ward, an expatriate working as a translator on the Right Bank. Hemingway -- one of Ward's premier acquaintances in the French capital -- goes under the fictional name of J. Miller Waddington, while the likes of Stein, Toklas, Fitzgerald, and even Georges Simenon (see 'Bookmark' for page 16) are all portrayed in various guises.
One such tale that did make it to the printing press went under the heading of 'A Pursuit Race'. Published in 1927 in Hemingway's collection of short stories called Men Without Women, the little attention it did receive tended on the negative.
Just as Mike Ward predicted, however, Hemingway quickly learned to love the sport of bicycle racing. So much so that at times it even overtook his dedication to writing. In April 1925, Michael Reynolds tells us, 'Ernest was too busy watching the tactics of Brocco and MacNamarra in the bike races to worry about a novel. Ethel Moorhead's [Scottish painter, suffragette and editor of This Quarter with Ernest Walsh] acceptance check for 'The Undefeated' was large enough, he told her, to pay the rent, buy groceries, and tickets for the bike races. He and Hadley took enough food to last them well into the night.'
The tandem bicycles with gasoline engines that were used to 'pace' the bicycle races of the 1920s were designed by Oscar Hedstrom. Although they largely failed in their intended function of sheltering the riders from the wind, the bikes themselves soon earned a favourable reputation for their reliability. Hedstrom was co-founder of the Indian Motorcycle Company, building the firm's first prototype in 1901.
French cyclist Gustave Ganay, born in 1892 in Marseille, was middle distance champion in the National Stayers Championships in 1926. He was killed at the height of his cycling career when he took a fall at the Parc des Princes in August of the same year. One of the grandstands in the stadium that replaced the old Velodrome is named in his honour.
Poet and publisher Adrienne Monnier opened her store, La Maison des Amis des Livres, in 1915, making her one of the only women in the country to set up her own bookshop. This rather unique position drew many women seeking advice on similar endeavours. One such lady was Sylvia Beach, and what followed was not only Shakespeare and Company, but a long-standing love affair between the two.
French poet and essayist Léon-Paul Fargue (1876-1947), a close friend of both Adrienne and Sylvia, had his first works in print by the age of nineteen. An opponent of the surrealist movement, Fargue aligned himself instead with symbolist poetry. He would feature in Sylvia's memoirs Shakespeare and Company, which were published in 1956.
Valery Larbaud (see 'Bookmark for page 21) was also closely connected to Beach and Monnier. One of the translators of Joyce's Ulysses, he lived at 71 rue du Cardinal Lemoine between 1919 and 1937 -- a stone's throw from the Hemingways' apartment at number 74 -- and loaned the property to Joyce in 1921 in an effort to help him finish the book.
Although pneumatic capsule transportation -- whereby cylindrical containers are fired through a network of tubes using a vacuum or compressed air pressure -- was invented in 1806 by Phineas Balk, the system did not become widely used until the Victorian era. The beginning of the 20th century saw the height of the invention's popularity, with Paris still using a major interconnected system until 1984.
Der Querschnitt (the Cross-Section) was a German periodical launched in 1921. Its Paris-based representative was Count Alfred von Wedderkop, known locally as 'Mr Awfully Nice' owing to the regularity with which he uttered the same few words of his marginal English vocabulary. It was at Shakespeare and Company that Wedderkop first met the American composer George Antheil and, believing him to be a literary man, asked if he would work as one of the magazine's contributing editors. Antheil, reluctant to give up the extra income, agreed, knowing that friendships with the likes of Beach, Ford and Pound would stand him in good stead. In this way, Hemingway's work reached the Frankfurt-based cultural publication. As Carlos Baker points out in Hemingway the Writer as Artist (1956): 'Antheil sent him some poems of Joyce's, and four poems and a short story by Hemingway. Beginning in the fall of 1924 and running through the summer of 1925, Wedderkop printed them all.'
Michael Reynolds writes, however, that Hemingway first made contact with the German editor through a dinner invitation to Pound's apartment. Once there, 'Ernest was impressed with his opposition to pretense in the arts. His editorial program, according to Ernest, was "To hell with all Literary Criticism. Publish the stuff the guys write instead of stuff about them. To hell with the Literary snobbery and Vanity Fairism. Give 'em all the dope. Not all the dope that's fit to print. He has swell boxing pictures and pictures of all the swell broads in Europe. He's too good a guy to last."' (Hemingway the Paris Years, p. 241).
Listen on Spotify: Juana - Flamenco
Despite his dislike of Ford Madox Ford's 'pompous monologues and British demeanour', Hemingway learned much from the self-promoting ways of the older writer, not least the power of free publicity created by way of literary controversy. As such, 'when Ford asked him to write an editorial column for the May transatlantic , Hemingway did his best to create a literary uproar, insulting two well-known Left-Bankers -- Tristan Tzara, co-founder of the Dadaist movement, and Djuna Barnes, the attractive lesbian author' (Michael Reynolds, Hemingway the Paris Years, p. 183).
Hemingway's distaste for Ford was not limited to his personality. In a communication to Ezra Pound he ranted: 'Ford ought to be encouraged, but Jesus Christ. It is like some guy in search of a good money maker digging up Jim Jeffries at the present time as a possible heavy weight contender. The thing to do with Ford is kill him.' (Reynolds, p. 169).
Edward O'Brien began editing the yearly anthology, The Best American Short Stories, in 1915. Seeking to find the best contemporary American authors, O'Brien's emphasis was on the forward-thinking and progressive, and he shied away from formulaic fiction. He soon built a reputation for recognising promising new writing talent, incorporating work by Sherwood Anderson and Irwin Shaw, amongst others. As far as Hemingway's 'My Old Man' was concerned, O'Brien demonstrated his confidence in an as yet unproven writer, even going so far as to aid in the publication of the collection of short stories that became In Our Time.
He included 'My Old Man' in the 1923 edition of his anthology, dedicating the book to Hemingway.
'Out of Season' was the first story Hemingway penned after the heavy loss of the manuscript-containing suitcase. After it was written, it comprised one of three stories he had in his collection, the other two being 'Up in Michigan' (see 'Bookmark' for page 9) and 'My Old Man', which Robert McAlmon had agreed to publish under the title of Two Stories and Ten Poems. However, having completed 'Out of Season' in Cortina, and excited about his new style of writing, Ernest hurriedly submitted the third story in the hope of securing his literary reputation in the French capital.
The autobiographical war novel to which Hemingway refers had fallen victim to Gertrude Stein well before Hadley's absent-mindedness. After casting her critical eye over it, she instructed Hemingway to 'begin over again and concentrate' (Michael Reynolds, Hemingway the Paris Years, p. 4). He knew she was right. However, it wouldn't be long before he tackled the hard work he had been avoiding. He wrote the majority of The Sun Also Rises (also called Fiesta) in 1924. It was published in 1926, and secured his reputation as a successful author.
French poet Paul Fort (1872-1960) became an important influence in the Montparnasse community, promoting many of its artists through the Théâtre d' Art, which he founded in 1880 in opposition to the Naturalist theatre.
In 1905 he also formed the Vers et Prose review, which, with the collaboration of Guillaume Apollinaire, fostered the talent of many Symbolist writers. He was given the accolade 'Prince of Poets' by Verlaine in 1912, in recognition of both his contributions and accomplishments.
Swiss writer and poet Frédéric Louis Sauser, better known as Blaise Cendrars, was highly influential to the modernist movement. He was notorious for the fictionalisation of his past, a tendency which has proven rather problematic for those attempting an accurate biography on the novelist. His seminal works are considered to be Sutter's Gold and Moravagine, both published in 1926.
He lost his right arm in 1915 during the World War I attacks on Champagne.
The Legion of Honor (Légion d'honneur) was established under Napoleon Bonaparte to cast off the pre-revolution orders of French chivalry. The awards of the Legion -- available to both soldier and civilian -- are based on recognition of merit rather than nobility. Civilians admitted into the order would be permitted to display 'a narrow red ribbon or rosette without insignia' in a buttonhole.
The Order of Academic Palms (Ordre des Palmes Académiques) was a system introduced by Napoleon Bonaparte to reward those achieving substantial merit. Although palmes académiques were initially presented only to teachers or professors, revision of the award in 1866 meant that practically anyone aiding the advancement of French education was eligible.
L'Académie française was established in 1635, and constitutes the oldest of the five académies belonging to the Institute de France. Reinstated by Napoleon Bonaparte in 1803, the Academy's 40 members act as the official authority on all matters pertaining to the French language. The society awards a number of prizes in various fields, including literature and poetry.
The Croix de Guerre was originally created in 1915 as an award for displays of heroism during World War I. Primarily a military decoration of Belgium and France, it was also bestowed on members of the armed forces of allied countries.
The Médaille Militaire (Military Medal), created by Napoleon III and first issued in 1852, is awarded to non-commissioned officers exhibiting extreme bravery against an enemy force. Following World War I, it was also bestowed upon those wounded in action.
Ford Madox Ford changed his name in 1919 from Ford Madox Hueffer, due to the unfavourable association with Germany in the wake of World War I (for more on Ford, and Hemingway's feelings towards him, see bookmark for page 41).
The Hemingways' flat at 74 Cardinal Lemoine was directly above one of the working-class dance halls that became know as the bals musette.
Anglo-French poet, novelist and political thinker Hilaire Belloc was born near Paris in 1870. The majority of his writing reflects his deep-seated faith in Roman Catholicism. Although his mother and sister (for more on Marie Belloc Lowndes see bookmark for page 16) were strong advocates of women's rights, Belloc remained 'opposed to women's voting as men vote. I call it immoral, because I think the bringing of one's women, one's mothers and sisters into the political arena, disturbs the relations between the sexes.'
Joseph Wiesenfarth's biography, Ford Madox Ford and the Regiment of Women, chronicles the writer's relationships, how they influenced him, and how his behaviour was often at odds with the 'proper man' he believed himself to be.
Ouida was the pen-name of English novelist Maria Louise Ramé (1839-1908). The daughter of a Frenchman, she produced some 44 works (usually at a rate of more than one a year) of fiction and short stories for both adults and children alike. However, her work was often condemned by critics for being 'generally flashy, and frequently unwholesome'.
Established in Liepzig 1796, Tauchnitz was a family-run printers and publishers, whose cheaply-produced Collection of British and American Authors was well-read by travellers on the Continent.
'Would he cut a bounder?' Hemingway goes on to ask. While the terms 'cad' and 'bounder' often seem synonymous in their usage of defining a morally reprehensible person, Ewa Lewis highlights an interesting difference between the two: 'To be a cad, one really has to be upper-class and rich. Alan Clark springs immediately to mind. In the dictionary, a cad is someone who behaves "in an ungentlemanly way" and a bounder one "who behaves in a way beyond the bounds of society".