Page 102. " Art thou pale for weariness "

The rest of this poem by Percy Bysshe Shelley can be read here.


Page 103. " the house of commons of the old Irish parliament. "

The Act of Union (1800) abolished the independent parliament in Dublin.

The building was sold in 1802 to the Bank of Ireland.

Page 103. " Hely Hutchinson and Flood and Henry Grattan and Charles Kendal Bushe "

John Hely-Hutchinson (1724-1794) was an Irish lawyer, statesman, and Provost of Trinity College, Dublin.

William Henry Grattan Flood  (1857-1928) was a renowned musicologist and historian, known for his ecclesiastical compositions and his contribution to Irish music and history.

Henry Grattan (1746-1820) was a member of the Irish House of Commons, who opposed the Act of Union 1800 that merged the Kingdoms of Ireland and Great Britain.

Charles Kendal Bushe (1767-1843) held the office of Lord Chief Justice in Ireland.

Page 106. " He had wandered into a maze of narrow and dirty streets. "

The maze of streets evokes Stephen's namesake Daedalus, creator of the famous Labyrinth at Knossos, which housed the half-man half-bull creature called the Minotaur

Creative Commons AttributionLabyrinth - Credit: JamesJen
Page 114. " If a layman in giving baptism pour the water before saying the words is the child baptised? "

In Christianity, baptism is the ritual 'washing of sins' by which a person becomes a member of the Church.

Stephen is questioning the technicalities of his religion.


Page 114. " in honour of saint Francis Xavier "

 Saint Francis Xavier was one of the first followers of Saint Ignatius de Loyola, and therefore one of the first Jesuits. He was sent by the latter as a missionary to India, and is known as the Apostle of the Indies.

Page 117. " Now what was the meaning of this word retreat "

From a religious and spiritual point of view, the term 'retreat' means a time spent alone or in contemplative communion with others, a time that allows for reflection, prayer or meditation, achieved by withdrawing or 'retreating' from ordinary life.

Page 121. " the soul passed to the abode of bliss or to the prison of purgatory or had been hurled howling into hell. "

According to Catholic doctrine, some souls are not sufficiently free from sin and its consequences to enter the state of Heaven immediately, nor are they so sinful as to be destined for Hell. Such souls, though ultimately destined to be united with God in Heaven, must first endure purgatory — a state of purification (a purge). Here, souls achieve the holiness necessary to enter Heaven.

Page 123. " Was it not Addison, the great English writer "

 Joseph Addison began his literary career by writing poems which were quite popular. Then he started writing political pamphlets, but they were not impressive. Additionally, he wrote plays, but none of lasting quality. It is only as an essayist that Addison is remembered today, though he embarked on this course quite by accident: his childhood friend, Richard Steele, started The Tatler magazine, and he wrote for it.

Page 125. " Rain was falling on the chapel, on the garden, on the college. "

A reference to the biblical flood or deluge.