Page 177. " Goneboro toboro lookboro atboro aboro houseboro. "

This linguistic invention is presented to Stephen by his younger brothers, when he asks where their father is. It is a playful way in which we come to acknowledge the poverty of the Dedalus family (and Joyce's), just before his acceptance at the university.

Page 177. " began to sing the air Oft in the Stilly Night "

Oft in the Stilly Night is a poem by the Irish writer and singer Thomas Moore, (1779-1852) best known for the lyrics of The Minstrel Boy and the The Last Rose of Summer.



Page 178. " The university! So he had passed beyond the challenge of the sentries "

This is probably Trinity College Dublin.

Page 182. " Come along, Dedalus! Bous Stephanoumenos! Bous Stephaneforos! "

The phrases could be taken to signify "cow by the name of Stephen" and "the garlanded heifer", the common sacrificial offering of the Greek religion.

Page 183. " the ghost of the ancient kingdom of the Danes "

Ireland was invaded and plundered by the Danes in 785 A.D.

Page 190. " memories of the girls and women in the plays of Gerhart Hauptmann; "

Gerhart Hauptmann (1862-1946) was a German writer and pacifist who received the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1912.

Page 190. " the dark humour of Guido Cavalcanti "

Guido Cavalcanti was a thirteenth century Florentine poet and intellectual, a close friend of Dante.

Also mentioned in this paragraph are the following:

Henrik Ibsen was a nineteenth century playwright and poet from Norway, a founder of Modernism in theatre.

Ben Jonson was a Renaissance writer from England. A contemporary of Shakespeare, he is best known for plays such as Volpone and The Alchemist. 

The quote from Ben Jonson is from his Ode to Aurora:

I was not wearier where I lay

By frozen Tithon’s side tonight,

Than I am willing now to stay

And be a part of your delight.

But I am urgéd by the day,

Against my will, to bid you come away.

Page 194. " It was a Firbolg in the borrowed cloak of a Milesian "

In Irish mythology, the Firbolg people inhabited Ireland before the Tuatha Dé Danann. The Milesians were the final inhabitants of Ireland, the Celts.

Page 194. " the dusky verses were as fragrant as though they had lain all those years in myrtle, lavender and vervain "

Myrtle is an evergreen shrub or small tree with a white, star-shaped flower and round black berries.   

Lavender is a member of the mint family, and is usually found as a small shrub with fragrant leaves and pale purple flowers.

GNU Free Documentation LicenseLavender - Credit: Fir0002

 Vervain  is a herbaceous flowering plant. 

GNU Free Documentation LicenseVerbena(vervain) - Credit: Sphl
Page 195. " for Davin had sat at the feet of Michael Cusack, the Gael "

Michael Cusack (1847-1906) was an Irish teacher at Kilkenny College and Trinity College, Dublin. He was the founder of the Gaelic Athletic Association. The character of 'the citizen' in Ulysses is said to be partly based on him.

Page 195. " His nurse had taught him Irish and shaped his rude imagination by the broken lights of the Irish myth. "
Gaeltacht Areas in Ireland
GNU Free Documentation LicenseGaeltacht Areas in Ireland - Credit: Angr

The Irish language is now spoken and taught today only in certain small areas of Ireland, although it is the first official language of the Republic. Some television and radio stations broadcast in Irish. All the official papers in Ireland are written both in English and Irish Gaelic. Its use is largely symbolic.

Irish mythological stories can be grouped into cycles: the Mythological cycle, the Ulster cycle, the Fenian cycle and the Historical cycle. Some of the most important mythological figures are Cuchulainn, Macha, Lugh, and Deirdre