Samuel Griswold Goodrich (1793-1860). Peter Parley is his pseudonym.
Discover more here.
Loyola's main principle became the Jesuit motto: Ad majorem Dei gloriam ("for the greater glory of God").
The skull often appears in paintings of saints or politicians during the Renaissance period (see Holbein's The Ambassadors) as a reminder of mortality. Here Joyce creates a nice clash between the two: the dead skull and the living face of the rector.
John Stephen Conmee was rector at Clongowes from 1885 to 1891. Joyce includes him in his novel as a bright figure, a person who helps Stephen when he is abusively punished by Father Dolan.
He might be the source of Stephen's name. Conmee also appears as a character in Ulysses, where he gets his own stream-of-consciousness at the opening of "The Wandering Rocks." He also briefly appears in the "Circe" chapter of the same book.
These are Uncle Charles' favourite tunes:
2. Blue Eyes and Golden Hair
You can find more on the music in Joyce's books on this site.
Blarney Castle near Cork dates from the fifteenth century.
It is claimed that the association of "Blarney" with "empty flattery" derives from Queen Elizabeth I, who, while requesting an oath of loyalty to retain occupancy of land, received responses from Cormac Teige McCarthy, the Lord of Blarney promised loyalty to the Queen without "giving in". Elizabeth proclaimed that McCarthy was giving her "(a lot of) Blarney".
Munster is the southernmost Irish province, covering 9,374 square miles. Its largest city is Cork. The area is famed for Irish traditional music and for its ancient castles and monasteries, making it a popular destination for tourists.
This famous adventure novel was written by Alexandre Dumas in 1844. In The Count of Monte Cristo, Edmond Dantès, a young sailor, is the victim of a plot that robs him of his position and his beloved, Mercedes. After escaping from the prison to which he has been condemned and discovering a large fortune hidden in an island cave, Dantès returns to France, disguising himself as the Count of Monte Cristo, determined to wreak vengeance on those who conspired against him.
This quote marks with subtlety the beginning of Stephen's inner exile. Joyce felt that he could not have artistic freedom in Ireland, and went into self-imposed exile, eventually settling in Zurich. The theme of exile is therefore an important part of his work.
This is the River Liffey, a landmark of Dublin.
The Dublin horse trams ran from 1872, ten years before Joyce's birth, until 1959, 18 years after his death.
Lord Byron, who often had similar dedications at the beginning of his poems. "E--C--" is later discovered to be an 'Emma'.
We assist Stephen's metamorphosis. He is not himself anymore, as his being contains another being, that of his loved one, and he wants to see if this can also be seen from the outside. His gesture is reminiscent of the story of Narcissus.
The glass in question is a monocle: