Whitsuntide is the feast of Pentecost, celebrated 50 days after Easter. According to Christian tradition, it is the day when the Holy Spirit descended on the Apostles.
Joyce's Stephen Dedalus is an anti-hero, a combination of Daedalus and Icarus. He wants to free himself from his identity in order to become more precise and true in his artistic endeavour.
The Confiteor, or Confession, is said during the Catholic Mass as an act of ritual repentance of sin. The realisation of guilt and subsequent repentance and atonement for it is central to Stephen's struggles with his Catholicism: he is drawn to the sin of lust but also feels tremendous guilt over his youthful actions. However, here, his recitation is a playful act.
- Confiteor Deo omnipotenti et vobis, fratres,
- quia peccavi nimis
- cogitatione, verbo, opere, et omissióne:
- mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa.
- Ideo precor beatam Mariam semper Vírginem,
- omnes Angelos et Sanctos,
- et vos, fratres, orare pro me
- ad Dominum Deum nostrum.
- I confess to almighty God,
- and to you, my brothers and sisters,
- that I have sinned through my own fault,
- in my thoughts and in my words,
- in what I have done, and in what I have failed to do;
- and I ask blessed Mary, ever virgin,
- all the angels and saints,
- and you, my brothers and sisters,
- to pray for me to the Lord our God.
Captain Frederick Marryat (1792-1848) was an English writer and captain in the Royal Navy. He wrote a number of books, including Mr Midshipman Easy; most of his novels are adventures set at sea.
Cardinal Newman was an Anglican priest who converted to Catholicism. He was a prolific writer of religious books.
Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) was the British Poet Laureate, famous for poems such as The Charge of the Light Brigade and Ulysses.
An opera by Julius Benedict, first performed in 1862.
Listen on Spotify: The moon hath raised her lamp above
Queen's College in Cork was established in 1850. It was built near the site of Gill Abbey Rock, which is associated with the patron saint of Cork, Saint Finbarr.
Once a fashionable place to take morning coffee and afternoon tea in St Patrick's Street, Cork.
Dilectus is a phrase book of Latin quotations chosen as suitable "learned comments" for a wide variety of situations.