Page 76. " The night of the Whitsuntide play "

Whitsuntide is the feast of Pentecost, celebrated 50 days after Easter. According to Christian tradition, it is the day when the Holy Spirit descended on the Apostles.

Pentecost Icon
Public DomainPentecost Icon - Credit: Phiddipus
Page 76. " lines of Chinese lanterns were stretched "


Chinese Lanterns
Creative Commons AttributionChinese Lanterns - Credit: R Stanek
Page 79. " he could make out a pale dandyish face over which a smile was travelling slowly "

Dandys 1830
Public DomainDandys 1830 - Credit: Julo
Historically, especially in late 18th- and early 19th-century Britain, a dandy was a gentleman who took great care over his physical appearance, and who confined himself to activities of only the most refined, cultured kind.

Page 80. " Dedalus is a model youth. "

Daedalus and Icarus
Public DomainDaedalus and Icarus - Credit: Zinnmann
Stephen's namesake Daedalus, in Greek mythology, was the father of Icarus. He designed the Minotaur's labyrinth on Crete, and was then imprisoned with his son by King Minos. Daedalus constructed wings out of feathers and wax with which they escaped.  However Icarus, forgetting his father's warning, flew too close to the sun and the wax melted in his wings.  He fell to his death.

Joyce's Stephen Dedalus is an anti-hero, a combination of Daedalus and Icarus. He wants to free himself from his identity in order to become more precise and true in his artistic endeavour.

Page 82. " began to recite the Confiteor "

The Confiteor, or Confession, is said during the Catholic Mass as an act of ritual repentance of sin. The realisation of guilt and subsequent repentance and atonement for it is central to Stephen's struggles with his Catholicism: he is drawn to the sin of lust but also feels tremendous guilt over his youthful actions. However, here, his recitation is a playful act.

Confiteor Deo omnipotenti et vobis, fratres,
quia peccavi nimis
cogitatione, verbo, opere, et omissióne:
mea culpa, mea culpa, mea maxima culpa.
Ideo precor beatam Mariam semper Vírginem,
omnes Angelos et Sanctos,
et vos, fratres, orare pro me
ad Dominum Deum nostrum.
I confess to almighty God,
and to you, my brothers and sisters,
that I have sinned through my own fault,
in my thoughts and in my words,
in what I have done, and in what I have failed to do;
and I ask blessed Mary, ever virgin,
all the angels and saints,
and you, my brothers and sisters,
to pray for me to the Lord our God.
Page 84. " Nash declared for Captain Marryat "

 Captain Frederick Marryat (1792-1848) was an English writer and captain in the Royal Navy. He wrote a number of books, including Mr Midshipman Easy;  most of his novels are adventures set at sea.




Page 84. " And do you like Cardinal Newman, Dedalus? "

Cardinal Newman was an Anglican priest who converted to Catholicism. He was a prolific writer of religious books.

Page 85. " Tennyson a poet! Why, he's only a rhymester! "

  Alfred, Lord Tennyson (1809-1892) was the British Poet Laureate, famous for poems such as The Charge of the Light Brigade and Ulysses.


Page 89. " He could hear the band playing The Lily of The Killarney "

An opera by Julius Benedict, first performed in 1862.

Listen on Spotify:  The moon hath raised her lamp above


Page 93. " I hope they haven't moved Queen's College anyhow "

Queen's College in Cork was established in 1850. It was built near the site of Gill Abbey Rock, which is associated with the patron saint of Cork, Saint Finbarr.

Queen's University, Cork
Creative Commons AttributionQueen's University, Cork - Credit: Guliolopez
Page 99. " They had set out in the morning for Newcombe's coffee-house "

Once a fashionable place to take morning coffee and afternoon tea in St Patrick's Street, Cork.

Google Map
Page 100. " translate short passages from Dilectus "

Dilectus is a phrase book of Latin quotations chosen as suitable "learned comments" for a wide variety of situations.