"There were the biographies: Johnson and Goethe and Carlyle and Sterne and Cowper and Shelley and Voltaire and Browning"

Biographies of the listed authors which might have been known to Woolf's narrator include:

Robert Browning
Public DomainRobert Browning - Credit: unknown
Voltaire by Lusurier after de Largillière
Public DomainVoltaire by Lusurier after de Largillière - Credit: Catherine Lusurier (c.1753-1781) after Nicolas de Largillière (1656-1746)

The Life of Samuel Johnson (1791) by James Boswell; 

Goethe: The History of a Man (1920) by Emil Ludwig;

Life of Carlyle (1882-1884) by James Anthony Froude;

Life and Times of Sterne (1909) by W.L. Cross;

The Life of William Cowper (1892) by Thomas Wright;

The Life of Percy Bysshe Shelley (1847) by Thomas Medwin;

The Friends of Voltaire (1906) by Evelyn Beatrice Hall;

Robert Browning (1903) by G.K. Chesterton.