Autocrat
a person ruling with unlimited authority
Babi Yar
a ravine outside the Ukrainian capital Kiev
Breshnev
Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev served as the First Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union during the cold war period, from 1964 to 1982
carapace
A hard outer covering or shell made of bone or chitin on the back of animals such as turtles, armadillos, lobsters, and crabs
Caryatid
is a sculpted female figure serving as an architectural support taking the place of a column or a pillar supporting an entablature on her head.
Codicil
a supplement to a will, containing an addition, explanation, or modification of something in the will
Cossacks
Members of military communities in Ukraine and Southern Russia
Donbass
historical, economic and cultural region of eastern Ukraine consisting of three provinces, or oblasts; the Dnipropetrovsk Oblast, the Donetsk Oblast, and the Luhansk Oblast
Fish Wife
a coarse-mannered, vulgar-tongued woman.
Gulag
an acronym for the Soviet bureaucratic institution, Glavnoe Upravlenie ispravitel’no-trudovykh LAGerei (Main Administration of Corrective Labor Camps), that operated the Soviet system of forced labor camps in the Stalin era
Holubchik
A Ukrainian term of endearment and affection meaning “Little Pigeon”
Hrivna
Hryvnia (alternative spelling); the currency of the Ukraine
Kotletki
A staple food throughout Russia. It is similar to a small hamburger, and comprised of ground beef and pork.
Kulak
a category of relatively affluent peasants in the later Russian Empire, Soviet Russia and Early Soviet Union. Kulaks were seen as class enemies after the Russian Revolution because they owned land and were finalicially independent.
Lada
– a trademark of the company AvtoVAZ, a Russian manufacturer which produced economy cars that were extremely popular in Soviet bloc countries
Lenin
Vladimir Ilyich Lenin was the Bolshevik Leader of the 1917 October Revolution, and the first Head of State of the Soviet Union
Lviv
A major city in western Ukraine
Makhno
Nestor Ivanovych Makhno was a Ukrainian anarcho-communist guerrilla leader turned army commander who led an independent anarchist army in Ukraine during the Russian Civil War
NKVD
The Narodnyy Komissariat Vnutrennikh Del was the public and secret police organization of the Soviet Union that directly executed the rule of power of the Soviets, including political repression, during the era of Stalin
Odessa
City in Southern Ukraine located near the Black Sea. It is the fourth largest city in the Ukraine and has a population just over 1 million people
Primigravida
– In medical terms “gravidity” refers to the number of times a woman has become pregnant. Therefore, a primigravida refers to a woman who is pregnant for the first time or has been pregnant only once
Proletarian
According to Marxist Socialism, it is a member of the wage-earning working class
Prometheus
In Greek Mythology, he is a Titan who stole fire from Zeus and gave it to mortals. Zeus then punished him for his crime by having him bound to a rock while a great eagle ate his liver every day only to have it grow back to be eaten again the next day
Revolution of 1917
Revolution which destroyed the Tsarist autocracy (Czar Nicolas II) and led to the creation of the Soviet Union, led by Vladimir Lenin and the Bolshevik party. This paved the way for the creation of the Union of Soviet Socialist Republic (USSR) in 1922
Russian Civil War
War fought just after the revolution from 1918-1922 between the Russian Red Army and the Russian White Army.
Russian Red Army
radical communist revolutionaries who fought against the Russian White Army during the Russian Civil War of 1918
Russian White Army
the monarchists, conservatives, liberals and moderate socialists who opposed the drastic restructuring championed by the Bolsheviks and fought against the Russian Red Army during the Civil War of 1918. The White Army had backing from Great Britain, France, USA and Japan
Samohonka
Homemade vodka
Trotskyism
a term that distinguishes Trotskys theories in order to separate it from Marxism. Trotsky's ideas remain a major school of Marxist thought that is opposed to the theories of Stalinism
Weltanschauung
Meaning “word wide view” in German, this term refers to the framework of ideas and beliefs through which an individual interprets the world and interacts with it