was an Irish and Scottish socialist leader, who became one of the foremost Marxist theorists of his era. In 1913, as a response to the Lockout
, Connolly along with ex-British Army officer Jack White, established the Irish Citizen Army to protect workers and strikers from the brutal Dublin Metropolitan Police. The goal of the Irish Citizen Army soon became the establishment of an independent and socialist Irish nation. Connolly was shot by a British firing squad in Kilmainham Goal, Dublin for the part he played in the 1916 Easter Rising.