"Volunteers and Citizen Army"

The Irish Volunteers was a military organisation founded in 1913 by Irish Nationalists in response to the formation of the Ulster Volunteers in 1912. The aim of the Irish Volunteers was "to secure and maintain the rights and liberties common to the whole people of Ireland." The Irish Volunteers took part in the 1916 Easter Rising.

The Irish Citizen Army was a small group of armed and trained trade union volunteers founded in Dublin to protect workers from violence by the police. Its members also joined in the Easter Rising.