Page 80. " behind the Grand Canal Dock "

Grand Canal Dock is an area in Ringsend near Dublin city centre, surrounding the Grand Canal Docks, an enclosed harbour between the Liffey and the Grand Canal.

Google Map


Page 82. " hanging over Grafton Street "

Grafton Street, Dublin
Creative Commons AttributionGrafton Street, Dublin - Credit: Marek Ślusarczyk
Grafton Street is one of the main shopping streets in Dublin, which runs from St Stephen's Green in the south to College Green in the north.


Page 84. " it's the fuckin' Countess "

Sinn Fein member Constance Georgine Markiewicz (Countess Markiewicz) was the first woman elected to the British House of Commons. She, along with the other Sinn Fein members, refused to take their seats and formed the first Irish Parliament (Dail Eireann) in Dublin.



Page 87. " Commandant Connolly's "
James Connolly was an Irish and Scottish socialist leader, who became one of the foremost Marxist theorists of his era. In 1913, as a response to the Lockout, Connolly along with ex-British Army officer Jack White, established the Irish Citizen Army to protect workers and strikers from the brutal Dublin Metropolitan Police. The goal of the Irish Citizen Army soon became the establishment of an independent and socialist Irish nation. Connolly was shot by a British firing squad in Kilmainham Goal, Dublin for the part he played in the 1916 Easter Rising.



Page 87. " Volunteers and Citizen Army "

The Irish Volunteers was a military organisation founded in 1913 by Irish Nationalists in response to the formation of the Ulster Volunteers in 1912. The aim of the Irish Volunteers was "to secure and maintain the rights and liberties common to the whole people of Ireland." The Irish Volunteers took part in the 1916 Easter Rising.

The Irish Citizen Army was a small group of armed and trained trade union volunteers founded in Dublin to protect workers from violence by the police. Its members also joined in the Easter Rising. 



Page 87. " The Women of Cumann na mBan "

Cumann na mBan (Women's League) is an Irish Republican paramilitary organisation established on 5 April 1914 in Dublin. During the Easter Rising the members of Cumann na mBan were mostly involved as Red Cross workers and couriers, gathering intelligence and taking part in scouting missions, along with carrying dispatches and transferring weapons between insurgent strongholds.


Page 88. " Commandant Clarke "
Thomas James Clarke was an Irish revolutionary leader. Clarke was the first man to sign the Proclamation of the Republic, and took part in the Easter Rising, during which he was stationed at the General Post Office, where a large number of rebel forces were garrisoned. Following the Easter Rising, Thomas Clarke was executed in Kilmainham Goal on 3 May 1916.
Page 88. " If Commandant Pearse "
A statue of Patrick Pearse
GNU Free Documentation LicenseA statue of Patrick Pearse - Credit: Kglavin
A nationalist writer, barrister and teacher, Patrick (Padraig) Henry Pearse was one of the leaders of the Easter Rising. He was declared President of the Provisional Government of the Irish Republic in a bulletin issued by the leaders of the Rising. It was also Pearse who read the Proclamation of the Irish Republic from the steps of the General Post Office, and it was he, who after six days of fighting, issued the order to surrender. Like Thomas Clarke, Pearse was executed in Kilmainham Gaol on 3 May 1916.




Page 90. " I'd played The Last Post at the grave of O'Donovan Rossa "

Jeremiah O'Donovan Rossa was an Irish Fenian leader and prominent member of the Irish Republican Brotherhood. In 1870 Rossa was freed from jail following five years' incarceration for plotting a Fenian rising in 1865, however he was only freed on the condition that he would not return to Ireland. He moved to the United States and settled in New York City. Following his death in 1915, Rossa's body was returned to Ireland for burial and a hero's welcome. The graveside oration, given by Patrick Pearse, remains one of the most famous speeches of the Irish independence movement.

Page 91. " old boys from St Enda's "

St Enda's School was a secondary school for boys established by Patrick Pearse. 

Page 91. " front of Liberty Hall "

The impressive Custom House and the Liberty Hall Tower in Dublin
Creative Commons AttributionThe impressive Custom House and the Liberty Hall Tower in Dublin - Credit: uggboy uggboy
Liberty Hall was the headquarters of the Irish Transport and General Workers' Union, and that of the Irish Citizen Army. It was here that the leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising assembled before their march through the streets of Dublin to the General Post Office.


Page 92. " after Eoin MacNeill's "

Eoin MacNeill was co-founder of the Gaelic League, established to preserve Irish language and culture. He went on to establish the Irish Volunteers. MacNeill was Chief-of-Staff of the Irish Volunteers during the Easter Rising, although he took no part in the Rising and even tried to quash it. 


Page 92. " It was The O'Rahilly "

Michael Joseph O'Rahilly, self-described as The O'Rahilly, was an Irish nationalist who took part in the 1916 Easter Rising, and died during the fighting.


Page 92. " the new Irish Republican Army "

The Irish Republican Army (IRA) grew out of the Irish Volunteers. After the Irish Republic proclaimed during the Easter Rising was formally established by an elected assembly (Dail Eireann) in 1919 and the Irish Volunteers were recognised as its legitimate army, the IRA waged a guerrilla campaign against British rule in the 1919-1921 Irish War of Independence.



Page 93. " MacDiarmada "

Sean MacDiarmada was one of the leaders of the 1916 Easter Rising. Due to his disability (as a young man MacDiarmada was struck by polio, and forced to walk with a cane), MacDiarmada took very little part in the fighting during the Rising. Following the surrender, he almost escaped by blending in with the large body of prisoners, however, he was recognised by Daniel Hoey of G Division. Sean MacDiarmada was executed by firing squad in Kikmainham Gaol on 12 May.



Page 93. " Plunkett "

Poet and journalist Joseph Mary Plunkett was a key figure in the Easter Rising. Following the surrender, Plunkett was held in Kilmainham Gaol, and married his sweetheart, Grace Gifford, there before being executed by firing squad on 4 May 1916.

Page 93. " spoke to Mick Collins "

Minister for Finance and MP for Cork South in the First Dail of 1919, Michael Collins was Director of Intelligence for the IRA and a member of the Irish delegation during the Anglo-Irish Treaty negotiations. Collins was also Chairman of the Provisional Government and Commander-in-chief of the National Army. President of the Irish Republican Brotherhood from 1919, Collins was shot dead in August 1922 during the Irish Civil War.



Page 96. " The Proclamation of Independence "

The Proclamation of the Republic, was a document issued during the 1916 Easter Rising by the Irish Citizen Army and the Irish Volunteers. In it, the Military Council of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, styling itself as the Provisional Government of the Irish Republic, proclaimed Ireland's independence from the United Kingdom. The Rising began when Patrick Pearse read the proclamation outside Dublin's General Post Office.

Full text of the Proclamation:



IRISHMEN AND IRISHWOMEN: In the name of God and of the dead generations from which she receives her old tradition of nationhood, Ireland, through us, summons her children to her flag and strikes for her freedom.

Having organised and trained her manhood through her secret revolutionary organisation, the Irish Republican Brotherhood, and through her open military organisations, the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army, having patiently perfected her discipline, having resolutely waited for the right moment to reveal itself, she now seizes that moment, and supported by her exiled children in America and by gallant allies in Europe, but relying in the first on her own strength, she strikes in full confidence of victory.

We declare the right of the people of Ireland to the ownership of Ireland and to the unfettered control of Irish destinies, to be sovereign and indefeasible. The long usurpation of that right by a foreign people and government has not extinguished the right, nor can it ever be extinguished except by the destruction of the Irish people. In every generation the Irish people have asserted their right to national freedom and sovereignty; six times during the past three hundred years they have asserted it in arms. Standing on that fundamental right and again asserting it in arms in the face of the world, we hereby proclaim the Irish Republic as a Sovereign Independent State, and we pledge our lives and the lives of our comrades in arms to the cause of its freedom, of its welfare, and of its exaltation among the nations.

The Irish Republic is entitled to, and hereby claims, the allegiance of every Irishman and Irishwoman. The Republic guarantees religious and civil liberty, equal rights and equal opportunities to all its citizens, and declares its resolve to pursue the happiness and prosperity of the whole nation and of all its parts, cherishing all of the children of the nation equally, and oblivious of the differences carefully fostered by an alien Government, which have divided a minority from the majority in the past.

Until our arms have brought the opportune moment for the establishment of a permanent National Government, representative of the whole people of Ireland and elected by the suffrages of all her men and women, the Provisional Government, hereby constituted, will administer the civil and military affairs of the Republic in trust for the people.

We place the cause of the Irish Republic under the protection of the Most High God, Whose blessing we invoke upon our arms, and we pray that no one who serves that cause will dishonour it by cowardice, inhumanity, or rapine. In this supreme hour the Irish nation must, by its valour and discipline, and by the readiness of its children to sacrifice themselves for the common good, prove itself worthy of the august destiny to which it is called.

Page 96. " during the Lockout "

The Dublin Lockout was a major industrial dispute between 20,000 workers and 300 employers, which took place between 26 August 1913 and 18 January 1914. The Lockout is seen as the most severe and most significant industrial dispute in Irish history.



Page 100. " disappeared behind Nelson "

Located in the centre of O'Connell Street, Dublin, the Nelson Pillar, was a large granite pillar topped by a statue of Horatio Nelson. It was destroyed by a bomb in 1966.