The Guild Church of St Dunstan-in-the-West stands on Fleet St, to the east of Temple Bar.
The church Dickens would have seen while writing the book was not the one in existence at the time of the French Revolution. The original church, built around 1000 AD, was rebuilt in 1831, when Dickens was 19. Further rebuilding was necessary in 1950, following WW2 bomb damage to the tower.
Temple Bar was the gateway that marked the western limit of the City of London, where Fleet Street becomes the Strand. It can be seen in the background of the painting. Today, the spot is marked by a dragon-topped stone monument in the middle of the street.