Page 134. " the German ballad of Leonora "
by hector
Public DomainLeonore - Credit: Johann David Schubert

Leonore is a 1773 German poem by Gottfried August Bürger.  It was extremely popular and was an important influence in Romantic literature and, later, vampire literature.

Leonore's fiancé, William, has not returned from the Seven Years' War, and fearing the worst she turns against God.  One night, a stranger resembling William appears on a horse and invites Leonore to ride away with him.  She agrees, but is soon terrified by the speed they travel.  Their destination is the cemetery where William's remains lie; the rider is none other than Death.


Page 147. " to Vauxhall Gardens "


Vauxhall Gardens was a privately-operated pleasure garden open between 1729 and 1859. Admission was charged and attractions included tightrope walkers, fireworks, hot air balloons and concerts. There were various pavilions and walkways, popular meeting points for romantic assignations. Food and drink were available, and crowds of 60,000 or more could be accommodated. The Gardens were popular amongst all classes.

The lease was eventually sold to developers and the land was divided into 300 building plots. However the site was cleared in the 20th century, and now holds a small park and a city farm.

Page 147. " to Ranelagh "
Ranelagh Gardens, 1754
Public DomainRanelagh Gardens, 1754 - Credit: Thomas Bowles

Ranelagh Gardens were public pleasure gardens in the village of Chelsea, just outside London. 

They are now the site of the annual Chelsea Flower Show.


Page 147. " on Saint Dunstan's side of Temple Bar "
by hector
St Dunstan-in-the-west, 1842
Public DomainSt Dunstan-in-the-west, 1842 - Credit: Thomas Shotter Boys

The Guild Church of St Dunstan-in-the-West stands on Fleet St, to the east of Temple Bar.

The church Dickens would have seen while writing the book was not the one in existence at the time of the French Revolution.  The original church, built around 1000 AD, was rebuilt in 1831, when Dickens was 19.  Further rebuilding was necessary in 1950, following WW2 bomb damage to the tower.

Temple Bar was the gateway that marked the western limit of the City of London, where Fleet Street becomes the Strand.  It can be seen in the background of the painting.  Today, the spot is marked by a dragon-topped stone monument in the middle of the street.


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