Page 255. " the dawning Republic One and Indivisible, of Liberty, Equality, Fraternity, or Death "


"Liberté, égalité, fraternité ou la mort" 

The motto of the French revolution:Liberty, equality, fraternity or death. There were various versions of this motto that were used during the revolution. The French Revolution came about as increasing population numbers put pressure on the country's resources. The ever increasing prices of bread and dissatisfaction with feudal customs and the power of the aristocracy and clergy led to an uprising throughout France but particularly in Paris. The revolution began in 1789 and was driven by the will of the people, peasants and city folk alike. It over turned the monarchy and led to a collapse of the feudal system in France. 

Page 257. " when they came to the town of Beauvais "



Beauvais Cathedral
Public DomainBeauvais Cathedral - Credit: Pepijntje, Wikimedia Commons

Beauvais is an ancient town in northern France that dates back to Roman times.  It has an unusual Gothic cathedral, a bishop, and a traditional tapestry industry.  Once an important stopping point on the route to Paris, it is now the location of the capital's "third airport" according to the likes of Ryanair.

Dr Manette's home town has twice been besieged by English armies.


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Page 268. " in his metempsychosis "
Hindu reincarnation philosophy
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeHindu reincarnation philosophy - Credit: Azad singh parihar
Dazu Wheel of Reincarnation
GNU Free Documentation LicenseDazu Wheel of Reincarnation - Credit: Calton

Metempsychosis is a term from the Greeks that refers to reincarnation of the soul. It is variously referred to as "transmigration" or "palingensia". The belief in reincarnation is carried associated with religons such as Buddhism and Hinduism where after death the soul may be reborn in another form. The Greek mathematician, Pythagoras, was said to be a believer in metempyschosis and influenced his contempories in the Orphic way of life. One of which, the philosopher Plato, believed that there is no new knowledge, just the remembering of old knowledge. 

The school of Athens
Public DomainThe school of Athens - Credit: Raphael