This usually involved running a lighted candle down the seam of one’s clothes, where the lice were most often located. Another method was to soak clothes in naphthalene. De-lousing was a social activity: it gave the soldiers an opportunity to get together and talk while working on a common goal.
Unfortunately, as soon as the lice were dead their eggs would hatch and their offspring would simply take their place. Since each female louse could produce up to 12 eggs per day, it was generally a losing battle.
Beyond the maddening itching and futile scratching, the lice produced blotchy red marks across the body and left a faintly sour smell. Furthermore, lice were responsible for the spread of trench fever and typhus. Once a louse had sucked the blood of one infected soldier, it spread disease to all subsequent hosts. Due to the very close proximity of the soldiers in the trenches and their poor sanitation, these diseases were rampant, eventually leading to a 15% trench casualty rate.
There are 25-35 species of poplars in the world. The most common type is the aspen. They are medium-sized trees that grow 30-75 feet tall, depending upon the species.
Beer gardens are particularly common in Germany.
Dripping is a form of lard, commonly obtained from beef or sometimes pork. It is made from the unusable fatty parts of cow and pig carcasses. These ingredients are put in a pot of boiling water with a lot of salt (2g per liter) and then chilled until solidified.
Before the 20th century, dripping was used in most European cooking, but it has fallen from grace as it is less healthy than vegetable oil. Traditional English Fish and Chips is deep fried in beef dripping.
By World War I, the old County of Flanders no longer existed. The name was used to refer to those parts of northern France and Western Belgium in which the great battles of Ypres, Passchendaele, and the Somme were fought.
by John McCrae, May 1915
In Flanders fields the poppies blow
Between the crosses, row on row,
That mark our place; and in the sky
The larks, still bravely singing, fly
Scarce heard amid the guns below.
We are the Dead. Short days ago
We lived, felt dawn, saw sunset glow,
Loved and were loved, and now we lie,
In Flanders fields.
Take up our quarrel with the foe:
To you from failing hands we throw
The torch; be yours to hold it high.
If ye break faith with us who die
We shall not sleep, though poppies grow
In Flanders fields.
The pfennig was a German coin in existence from the 9th century until the introduction of the euro in 2002.
It was worth a great deal in the late middle ages, but under the Second Reich it lost value and became a minor component of the Mark currency.