The German M1918 helmet (which they were most likely wearing) had a unique, steep round shape with a prominent bill. View a picture
At the beginning of the war, civilian hunting rifles were used as the standard military rifles were not effective at long range. Soon, both sides developed better sniper rifles and invented periscope sights that greatly increased their ability to operate safely. Many snipers kept tallies of the men they had killed, and they were often promoted on the basis of their scores.
A billet is a soldier's living quarters. Historically, the term referred to a civilian dwelling whose occupants were required to put up a soldier.
When not on combat duty, soldiers are generally billeted in barracks or garrisons, although in some armies soldiers with families are permitted to maintain a home off-post.
An der Weser is a German folk song. The title translates as 'On the Weser (river).'
The Weser river flows north through Germany and meets the North Sea at Bremerhaven.
Goetz von Berlichingen (1773) is a play by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe. It is a dramatized representation of the life of adventurer and poet Goetz, who lived in Germany around 1480–1562.
When asked to surrender his castle while under seige by the Imperial Army, Goetz delivered the famous line, “Er kann mich im Arsche lecken!”. Roughly translated, the phrase means "Kiss my arse!"
A baldaquin, or baldachin, is the cover over an altar or throne.
The structure originated as a cloth covering but turned into a permanent architectural feature, particularly found over the altar in cathedrals.
A perambulator is a pram, a device for transporting infants.
The idea of “total war” held that the enemy was an entire nation, not just an army. In one particularly horrendous case, a French unit used German maps to locate a circus tent and then bombed it, killing 120 German civilians, most of them children.
By the end of the war, civilian deaths totaled 7 million.
They are also known as "bayroot".
Chloroform is a colorless, sweetly-scented liquid best known for its historical use as an anesthetic. It has since been abandoned in medicine due to safety concerns. It is produced by reacting chlorine with ethanol. While relatively stable, it is toxic and should be handled with care. Excessive exposure to chloroform can cause long term health damage to several major organs.
The use of chloroform as an anesthetic dates from 1847, but almost immediately concerns were raised. In 1848, a patient died because her heart went into fibrillation, and continued use of the drug only cemented the link between chloroform and cardiac events.
Today, chloroform is used in a variety of industrial processes including the manufacture of chemicals, refrigerants, and solvents.
During World War I, Cologne was the target of several minor air raids, but it survived without significant damage. Until 1926 Cologne was occupied by the British Army of the Rhine, under the terms of the armistice and the Treaty of Versailles.