Page 78. " Have you ever dug peat? "

Peat is formed from decomposed vegetable matter that accumulates over time. It is used as a fuel and as potting soil. It burns slowly and heats well without much smoke. Peat is also used as a raw material in the production of activated coal, a key ingredient for certain medical and chemical industries. 


Page 79. " become the village bobby "

Bobby is British slang for a police officer. 

The word derives from Sir Robert Peel, a two-time prime minister who founded the London police force in the early 1800s.

Page 80. " They've already taken away two more of his horses. "

During World War I, cavalry units were used regularly, as they were thought to be essential to military strategy, but forces soon discovered many drawbacks to combat on horseback. Horses were mainly used as logistical vehicles, as they were better travelling rough terrain than machinery, and they transported messages and pulled artillery. Some reasons that horses became less commonly used were that they contributed to disease, required too much effort to transport, and could not match up against artillery and machine guns. Some of the diseases the horses generated were equine influenza, sand colic, sores from fly bites, ringworm, and anthrax. Many hundreds of thousands of horses died throughout the war, and while they were seen largely as a drawback rather than advantage, they did leave a legacy. The memorial St. Jude on the Hill, Hampstead, reads this about the horse’s legacy in war: “Most obediently and often most painfully they died- faithful until death.”


Lennox, Janette. "Horses in World War I." Expert Reviews & Knowledge Articles. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. .

"Horses in World War I." Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. 30 Dec. 2011. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. .

French Cavalry Crossing River. Digital image. Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 13 Jan. 2012. .

Page 84. " What do you mean by the three-fold theme in 'William Tell'? "

William Tell is an opera by Gioachino Rossini.

Listen on Spotify

William Tell was a legendary Swiss folk hero and rebel against Austrian rule. He is best known for being forced to shoot an apple off his son's head.

Page 84. " What was the purpose of the Poetic League of Gottingen? "

The Poetic League of Gottingen was a literary group with a focus on nature.

It formed in 1772 in the university town of Gottingen, Germany. 


Google Map
Page 84. " How many children has Charles the Bald? "

Charles II (The Bald)
Public DomainCharles II (The Bald)

Charles II of Western Francia (current-day France) was Holy Roman Emperor from 843 to 877. 

He had 14 children, though many died young. 

Page 85. " When was the battle of Zana? "
Battle of Zama
Public DomainBattle of Zama - Credit: Henri-Paul Motte

Better known as the Battle of Zama of 202 BC.

The Roman general Scipio defeated Hannibal and the elephant-mounted forces of Carthage at Zama, ending the Second Punic War.


Google Map
Page 85. " Pince-nez "

Roosevelt wore pince-nez glasses
Public DomainRoosevelt wore pince-nez glasses - Credit: Library of Congress
Pince-nez are spectacles without arms, supported on the nose alone.


Pince-nez spectacles
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikePince-nez spectacles - Credit: Waerloeg

Page 100. " those little French beasts with instantaneous fuses "

The "French beasts" were also known as the French Trench Mortar.

The Mortier de 240 mm was a large calibre mortar developed by Batignolles Company of Paris and introduced in 1915.

 The relatively lightweight guns only required one gunner and were easily deployed, able to fire several rounds per minute.

Page 100. " There are at least four more batteries of nine-inch guns to the right of the farm "

The BL 9.2 inch Howitzer was Britain's predominant counter-artillery weapon during World War I.  The maximum range of the Mk I was 10,060 yards; the Mk II could fire up to 13,935 yards.