Franklin D Roosevelt believed that unemployment could be solved by "direct recruiting by the Government itself". He passed a series of bills between 1933 and 1939, including laws to reform banking, relief programmes, union protection and the Social Security Act. These reforms were known as Roosevelt's New Deal.
The Irish Free State was established in 1921, but the six counties of Ulster remained part of the United Kingdom (Northern Ireland). In 1932, Eamon de Valera became head of the Free State. He sought to reduce and finally end British influence in Irish affairs. He called for an end to the oath of allegiance to the British crown.