The short-lived Republic of Fredonia (December 21, 1826 – January 31, 1827) was located near Nacogdoches, Texas, and was the first attempt by Anglo settlers in Texas to secede from Mexico.
In late November 1826, a group of settlers led by empresario Haden Edwards took control of the region, and on December 21, 1826, declared their independence from Mexico. The Republic lasted until January 31, 1827, when a force of over 100 Mexican soldiers and 250 militiamen from rival empresario Stephen F. Austin's colony marched into Nacogdoches to restore order. Many of the participants, including Edwards, fled to the United States.
Mexican President Guadalupe Victoria, fearing that through the rebellion the United States hoped to gain control of Texas, subsequently increased the military presence in the area and imposed laws severely curtailing immigration to Texas. This new immigration law was bitterly opposed by colonists and caused increasing dissatisfaction with Mexican rule. Some historians consider the Fredonian Rebellion to be the beginning of the Texas Revolution. Although ‘premature … [the Fredonian Rebellion] sparked the powder for later success’ (W.B. Bates, A Sketch History of Nacogdoches).