"and Lipan indians"
Lipan warrior on horseback (c. 1854-57)
Public DomainLipan warrior on horseback (c. 1854-57) - Credit: Library of Congress

The Lipan are an Apachean tribal group, who once ranged over present-day Texas, New Mexico, Colorado and the northern Mexican states of Chihuahua, Nuevo León, Coahuila, and Tamaulipas.

The Lipan Apache population was estimated at 6,000 in 1700, but in 1764 their numbers were decimated by a smallpox epidemic, followed by a policy of extermination carried out by the Spanish. From 1869 to 1881, the Lipan also faced persecution from the Mexican Army assisted by United States Army troops.

Present-day Lipan mostly live throughout the U.S. Southwest, in Texas, New Mexico and the San Carlos Apache Indian Reservation in Arizona, as well as with the Mescalero tribe on the Mescalero Reservation in New Mexico.