Sirius is the brightest star in the night sky. The name derives from the Ancient Greek and means 'glowing' or 'scorcher'. Sirius is also commonly known as the Dog Star, on account of its prominence in its constellation Canis Major (Greater Dog).
Cetus is a constellation in the northern sky. It is named after the sea monster in Greek monster sent to devour Andromeda, although it is often called ‘the whale’ today. Cetus is located in the Water region of the sky, alongside other watery constellations such as Aquarius, Pisces, and Eridanus.
Orion is a constellation located on the celestial equator. Its name refers to Orion, a hunter in Greek mythology. One of the most conspicuous and recognisable constellations in the night sky, Orion is visible throughout the world.
Betelgeuse is second brightest star in the constellation of Orion and the eighth brightest star in the night sky. Classified as a red supergiant, Betelgeuse is one of the largest and most luminous stars known.
An esker is a long winding ridge of stratified sand and gravel. Eskers are found in glaciated and formerly glaciated regions of Europe and North America. Often several kilometres long, they resemble railroad embarkments in appearance.
Diegueño was the former name for the Kumeyaay, a Native American people of the extreme southwestern United States and northwest Mexico.
There are thought to be just 3,000 Kumeyaay left.
Diegueño, or Kumeyaay, homes were circular, domed structures woven from willow branches that still had the leaves attached. Mats or rabbit skins covered the doorways, and grasses were used to soften the floor.
San Felipe is located on the Gulf of California (Sea of Cortez) in the Mexican state of Baja California, 190 km south of the United States border.
Warner's Ranch, near Warner Springs, California, was notable as a way station for large numbers of emigrants on the Southern Trail from 1849 to 1861, as it was a stop on both the Gila River Trail and the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach line (1859-1861). It also operated as a pioneering cattle ranch.
When California became part of the United States, new obligations for taxes were applied to the Cupeño. Many of them worked on Warner's ranch, which had a bad reputation for severe treatment of Indians. In 1851, at the beginning of the Garra Revolt, an uprising by the local Cupeño tribe under Antonio Garra, Warner was attacked at his ranch. He sent his family to Los Angeles. Some of the ranch buildings were burned, but Warner continued to operate it, until his grant was challenged by a former claimant.
Warner's Ranch was a stop on the San Antonio-San Diego Mail Line in 1857 and the Butterfield Overland Mail stagecoach line between 1858 and 1860. It was linked to San Diego by the San Diego - Fort Yuma mail route via the road through Santa Isabel to San Diego. Travelers rested here along their journey, after the trip through the desert.
Buffalo rifles were large-calibre, generally single-shot black powder cartridge firearms which were used to hunt the buffalo to near-extinction in the late 19th century. The three most popular types of rifles used by professional buffalo hunters were the Springfield Riflle, Remington No. 1, and Sharps rifle.
The name was given by a group of Mormon settlers who crossed the Mojave Desert in the mid-19th century. The tree's unique shape reminded them of a Biblical story in which Joshua reaches his hands up to the sky in prayer
The focus of their ritual activity was Lent, when the Penitentes re-enacted the passion and death of Christ with acts of self-flaggelation and the carrying of heavy crosses (see bookmarks p.330 and p.331). Up to the year 1890, the flagellations of the Penitentes were public, but the order was forced into carrying out their rituals in secrecy following increasing pressure from church authorities to desist in the practice.
The Penitentes reconciled with the Church in the mid 20th century, receiving formal recognition in 1947. The current adherents now consider themselves to be members of the Third Order of St Francis.
An eldress is a woman who is an elder, a person valued for his wisdom who accordingly holds a particular position of responsibility in a Christian group.
Eldresses are particularly associated with the egalitarian Shaker religious community, since positions of authority in most Christian organisations were traditionally barred to women.
The first physician to use diethyl ether as an anesthetic was Crawford Williamson Long, who administered it on 30 March 1842 during a surgical procedure to remove a tumour from a patient in Georgia. Although Long subsequently used it on multiple occasions afterward, he did not publish anything regarding the trials until 1849. William T.G. Morton participated in a public demonstration of ether anesthesia on October 16, 1846 at the Ether Dome in Boston, Massachusetts. Because of its associations with Boston, the use of ether became known as the ‘Yankee Dodge’.
Today, ether is rarely used, mainly due to its many undesirable side effects, such as post-anesthetic nausea and vomiting.