Maria Ouspenskaya (1876-1949) was a Russian silent film actress. She was a founding member of the First Studio, part of the Moscow Art Theatre.
When the Moscow Art Theatre visited New York in 1922, Ouspenskaya decided to stay there. She performed regularly on Broadway over the next decade. In 1929, together with a colleague from the Moscow Art Theatre, she founded the School of Dramatic Art in New York.
In the late 1930s, she acted in various Hollywood films, usually playing European characters of various national origins. Her first Hollywood role, in 1936, earned her an Oscar nomination for Best Supporting Actress.