Stonyhurst College, established in 1794, was originally a Catholic boys' school in the Jesuit tradition, as well as a seminary for Jesuit priests. It is situated near the town of Clitheroe in Lancashire.
Its role as a seminary came to an end in the 1920s, but it continues as an independent Catholic boarding and day school, now fully co-educational.
St. Francis Xavier (1506-1552) was a Spanish-born Roman Catholic missionary and co-founder of the Jesuits (the Society of Jesus).
He carried out his missionary work in many Asian countries, including India, Borneo and Japan.
The exact meaning of an Enfant de Marie (Fr. Child of Mary) is unclear.
Possibly, it is related to an order known as the Congregation of the Children of Mary which was founded in Castelnaudary in the South of France by a Father Dulignan, sometime between 1830 and 1842. This order is what is known as a Third Order (one whose members, known as Tertiaries, live normally in the outside world, rather than being part of an institutionalised religious community).
The term Enfant de Marie is also linked to an organisation formed on the basis of a vision experienced by St. Catharine Laboure in 1835, which was especially popular during the mid-20th Century. After a six month period of 'aspirancy', its young women members earn the right to wear a blue cape which they relinquish on marriage.
Does anyone have any more information on this?
In the Roman Catholic Church, the blessed Sacrament is the name given to the consecrated bread and wine (which are seen as representing the body and blood of Christ) used during Holy Communion (the Eucharist).
Some of the consecrated elements may be kept and stored in a locked cabinet known as a tabernacle.
See also: bookmark, p.68.
A decade is one complete sequence of prayers which is timed by moving a group of 10 beads on the rosary.
*a prayer routine used by Catholics which is not an official public prayer of the Church, i.e., not part of the liturgy.
David Lloyd George (1863-1945) was a Welsh Liberal politician who served as Chancellor of the Exchequer from 1908 to 1915, and as Prime Minister from 1916 to 1922.
As Chancellor of the Exchequer, he is best remembered for introducing financial state support for the sick and infirm, and for initiating the Old Age Pension in 1908.
As Prime Minister, he is renowned for steering Britain through the later stages of the First World War, and through the subsequent peace negotiations at Versailles.
He was a colourful and controversial figure and one may only speculate as to why Cordelia Flyte considered him a suitable object of her rosary devotions!
Kaiser Wilhelm II (1859-1941) was the last Emperor of Germany and King of Prussia.
He succeeded his father as King and Emperor in 1888, and ruled until his forced abdication at the end of the First World War in 1918.
In spite of being a grandson of Queen Victoria, his role as Germany's wartime leader inevitably made him a hate figure to the British people and their allies.
Listen to Kaiser Wilhelm addressing the German people in 1914:
As will be seen from this description, even when they were 'roughing it', life wasn't too bad for the young aristocrats of the 1920s!
Foyot's, which is no longer in existence, was a restaurant situated on the Rue de Condé in Paris' Latin Quarter. It is the setting for a humorous short story by W. Somerset Maugham, entitled The Luncheon.
The Lotti is a luxury hotel situated on the Rue de Castiglione in Paris. It was established in 1910.
The Gare de Lyon is one of six large overground railway stations in Paris.
It is the main terminus for trains from the south and east of France.
Orvieto is a wine-producing region in Umbria and Lazio in Italy.
It is best known for its white wines, produced mainly from the Grechetto and Trebbiano grape varieties.
The piano nobile is the first floor of a large house, and is a particular feature of Venetian architecture. It is the location of the grander rooms; the ground floor is often reserved for more functional areas, such as servants' quarters.
Tintoretto was the nickname of Jacopo Comin (1518-1594), an important artist of the Venetian Renaissance school.
Byronic describes someone fitting the legend of the man: brooding, passionate, solitary, unconventional, aristocratic or cynical.
The Brenta Canal is a waterway connecting Padua (Padova) to the sea just south of the Venetian lagoon.
Although called a canal, it is in fact part of the River Brenta which was diverted so that it would not silt up the Venetian Lagoon.
From the 15th Century onwards, wealthy Venetians buit villas along its banks.
The Luna Hotel Baglioni is a luxury hotel situated in the heart of Venice.
Jacopo was responsible for introducing the Florentine style of early Renaissance painting to Venice;
Gentile is best known for his work as official portrait painter of the Doges of Venice*;
Giovanni further developed his father's innovative techniques and was to become the most famous member of the family.
*the chief magistrates and community leaders of the Venetian republic.
Florian's is a café in the centre of Venice. It has been in existence since 1720.
Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901) was a French painter, illustrator and printmaker, famous for his colourful depictions of Parisian life.
He often painted women working in nightclubs as entertainers, dancers or prostitutes.
An odalisque was a female slave in a Turkish harem who worked as an assistant to the wives and concubines.
The play's central character, Vittoria Corombona, is a young woman from a Venetian family who is tried for adultery and the murder of her husband.
A real event, the murder of Vittoria Accoramboni in Padua in 1585, was the inspiration for the plot.
We can, of course, only speculate as to whether Waugh wishes us to read any particular significance into his choice of name.
San Marco, sometimes known as Saint Mark's Basilica, is one of Venice's most famous churches.
It is an excellent example of Byzantine architecture, and is renowned for its ornate design and its gilded mosaics.
Strictly speaking, scampi are Norway lobsters (Nephrops norvegicus), but the term is also used in Italy and elsewhere to refer to similar species. Norway lobsters are also known as Dublin Bay Prawns and as langoustines.
Chioggia is a small town, situated about 12 miles south of Venice, on an island in the Venetian Lagoon.
The Bellini, a cocktail made from prosecco (a sparkling wine) and peach purée, is said to have originated there.
Bartolomeo Colleoni was a condottiero, a mercenary leader.
Charles Ryder and Sebastian Flyte belong to the generation that was just too young to have fought in the First World War, yet was old enough to be aware of its horrific carnage and suffering.
Sebastian's comment derives from the idea, prevalent in the war's aftermath, that such an event would never be allowed to happen again, and that the First World War would be the war to end all wars.
Waugh, writing Brideshead Revisited during the Second World War (in which he served), and portraying Charles Ryder as an Army Captain, would have been acutely aware of the tragic irony of Sebastian's words.
The Grand Canal is one of the main waterways of Venice.
Take a trip along the Grand Canal:
Bookmark readers with good memories will recall that All Souls accepts only the crème de la crème as fellows of the college.
We may assume, therefore, that Mr Samgrass (whom we will come to know very much better, as the novel progresses) has top notch intellectual abilities.
It has been suggested that Waugh based the character on Maurice Bowra (1898-1971), Warden of Wadham College between 1938 and 1970, and Vice-Chancellor of the University of Oxford between 1951 and 1954.
The League of Nations Union was an organisation founded in Britain after the First World War.
It was a peace movement which subscribed to the principles of the League of Nations, which had been established at the Paris Peace Conference, held in 1919.
The Cadena Cafés were a national chain of cafés serving coffee and light meals which were taken over by Tesco in the early 1960s.
The Oxford branch of the Cadena was situated on Cornmarket Street.
As mentioned previously (bookmark, p.35), Charles Ryder's cousin Jasper warned against Boar's Hill, although it was not quite clear why he should do so.
Tea on Boar's Hill might have involved one of the various literary or scholarly figures who lived there in the early decades of the 20th Century. These included the poets John Masefield, Robert Bridges, Robert Graves and Edmund Blunden, as well as the classical scholar, Gilbert Murray. Boar's Hill was also home to the actress Lillah Emma McCarthy (Lady Keeble) who was a leading lady in several plays by George Bernard Shaw.
Keble is an Oxford College, established in 1870 in memory of John Keble, one of the founders of the Oxford Movement which strove to introduce a more Catholic form of worship into the Anglican Church.
The college was originally heavily involved in theological teaching, although this is no longer the case. Both its religiosity and its modernity (in the 1920s) might have been reasons to be suspicious of those who attended lectures there.
It is part of the University of Oxford, and offers both undergraduate and postgraduate qualifications in the theory and practice of visual art.
In the period in which Brideshead Revisited is set, the school was housed in the Ashmolean Museum.
This is a reference to George du Maurier's 1894 bestselling novel Trilby. The heroine, Trilby O'Ferrall, is an artist's model in Paris.
St. Clement's is an area of Oxford on the east bank of the River Cherwell.
St. Ebbe's is an area of central Oxford which underwent substantial redevelopment in the latter part of the 20th Century. It is now the location of the Westgate shopping centre.
These are (or have been) actual pubs in Oxford.
Legend has it that it was at The Turf that the former U.S. president Bill Clinton famously did not inhale!
The Druid's Head closed down in 1934.
BNC is Brasenose College, an Oxford college founded in 1509.
Brasenose is said to be a contraction of Brazen Nose, a name stemming from the fact that the door knocker of the original college building was in the shape of a nose.
The Michaelmas term is the first term of the academic year (starting in October) at Oxford University and many other British and Irish schools and universities.
The name is derived from the Feast of St. Michael and all Angels, which falls on September 29th.
The Battle of Mons was the first major conflict of the war; it took place in August 1914.
The Battle of Passchendaele (also known as The Third Battle of Ypres) is the name given to a series of military operations which took place between July and November, 1917.
William Maxwell (Max) Aitken (1879-1964), better known as Lord Beaverbrook, was a Canadian-born business man who settled in Britain in 1910.
He subsequently bought a number of British newspapers, including the London Evening Standard, the Sunday Express and the Daily Express.
Evelyn Waugh satirised him in several novels: in the guise of Lord Copper in Scoop; and as Lord Monomark in Vile Bodies and Put out more Flags.
Frederick Edwin Smith (1872-1930), 1st Earl of Birkenhead, was a British lawyer and politician. He is particularly remembered for his colourful lifestyle, and for being a close personal friend of Sir Winston Churchill.
Rex Mottram moves in diverse circles:
Gertrude Lawrence (1898-1952) was a British actress and musical comedy performer;
Augustus John (1878-1961) was a Welsh artist, particularly well-known for his individualistic style of portrait painting;
Carpentier is probably the French boxer, Georges Carpentier (1894-1975).