"A glorious order shall follow, when all races shall know &, aye, embrace, their place in God's ladder of civilization."
Gliddon's 'Indigenous races of the earth' (1857), demonstrating that black people ranked between white people and chimpanzees intellectually.
Public DomainGliddon's 'Indigenous races of the earth' (1857), demonstrating that black people ranked between white people and chimpanzees intellectually.

This hierarchical notion of race was widely shared at the time and helped to justify the subjugation of darker skinned races to the European cause. This thinking was legitimized by pseudo-scientific publications like Arthur de Gobineau's An Essay on the Inequality of the Human Races, which postulated the idea that each race had sprung from a separate gene pool. This kind of scientific racism gave rise to human zoos or People Shows in which members of various races were showcased for the general scrutiny of a paying public.

A Human exhibit at the Bronx Zoo (1906) - A sign explained that 23 year old Ota Benga was 4' 11'' and weighed 103 pounds. He was exhibited each afternoon of September
Public DomainA Human exhibit at the Bronx Zoo (1906) - A sign informed the public that 23 year old Ota Benga was 4' 11'' and 103 pounds.