"I have adopted the method perfected by the late Herr Baedeker"

The German Baedeker Publishing House was founded by Karl Baedeker (1801-1859), and published its first guidebook in 1839. It is the star-rating system used in Baedeker guidebooks to pinpoint sites of particular interest to tourists that is used by Stella Gibbons for her own purposes (to denote 'purple passages' which parody the 'rural novel') in Cold Comfort Farm.


1890:       2010: