The Xhosa are South Africa’s second largest indigenous people after the Zulu.
Prior to the arrival of Europeans in the mid-17th century, Xhosa peoples occupied much of eastern South Africa. During the 19th century, wars with the white settlers, and with the Zulu, resulted in considerable scattering and fragmentation of Xhosa tribes.
Under Apartheid, the South African government attempted to confine the black population of the country to various ethnically defined Bantustans, or tribal homelands. The Xhosa were supposed to live in the nominally self-governing homelands of Transkei and Ciskei. These areas are now part of South Africa’s Eastern Cape province.
The Xhosa language has 15 click sounds.