Johannesburg is the biggest city in South Africa and, since 1994, the provincial capital of Gauteng.
Johannesburg includes the most famous of the South African townships, and the place that became synonymous with the struggle against apartheid: Soweto. Soweto was dragged into the limelight in June 1976 as the scene of the Soweto uprising, the name given to a series of student led demostrations, protesting against the government's plan to make teaching in Afrikaans compulsary in black schools.
The police turned fire on the protesters, causing widespread death and injury. Official governments records indicated 95 people had died, but the true figure is thought to be closer to 500.
The first President of the new post-aparthied South Africa, Nelson Mandela, lived in a tiny house in the Orlando West area, from 1946 to 1962. The house has now been turned into a museum.