"When I had lifted up my brows a little, The Master I beheld of those who know"

(Canto 4, lines 130-131)

This "Master" is Aristotle (384-322 BC). In Dante's view, philosophers and scientists were counted as one notch nobler than politicians - accordingly, they sit higher, and he must "lift his brow" to behold them. Dante had the utmost respect for Aristotle, often refers to him as simply "the Philosopher" (as in the Convivio book 4, chapter 8) and says of him that "Aristotle is most worthy of faith and obedience" and "his words are the supreme and highest authority" (also Convivio).