"Rinier da Corneto and Rinier Pazzo"

(Canto 12, line 137)

These two were famous robbers contemporary with Dante. The latter belonged to the Pazzo family of Valdarno. They were active around the Tuscan Maremma and also around Rome, Valdarno and Arezzo, where they robbed and looted and committed other crimes. Rinier Pazzo was excommunicated in 1268 by Pope Clement IV for killing and robbing the Florentine bishop Silvense and his train on their way to Rome, a sentence confirmed in 1271 by the new Pope Gregory X. Despite efforts by the cardinal Latino in 1280, he remained banished from the city of Florence.