"When shadows three together started forth,"

(Canto 16, line 4)

These three men are Guido Guerra VI, Tegghiaio Aldobrandi and Jacopo Rusticucci. The former, born in 1220, was from a prominent Guelf family and served at the court of Frederick II before returning to Florence and becoming a central figure among the Tuscan Guelfs. In 1241 he participated in the siege at Faenza against Frederick's forces; in 1255 he led the Florentine army in battle against the Ghibellines of Arezzo. After the Guelf defeat at Montaperti in 1260 he was exiled, and returned to Florence only after the Guelf victory at Benevento in 1266. He died at Montevalchi in 1272. For the two others, see an earlier bookmark to Canto 6.