This seems to be a reference to the Biblical creation of woman (Genesis 2:23-24), when Eve was made using one of Adam’s ribs:
And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.
Therefore shall a man leave his father and his mother, and shall cleave unto his wife: and they shall be one flesh.
Dracula is insinuating that he has re-made Mina in his own image – a vampire!
A reference to the Old Testament law for lepers:
And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and his head bare, and he shall put a covering upon his upper lip, and shall cry, Unclean, unclean.
The "stripes" are the wounds inflicted on Christ ("that other") by the flagellation that preceded the crucifixion.
The "shame" refers to other events of the Passion, including the mocking of Christ and the stripping of his garments.
Arlington Street was shortly to become rather more famous. Just eight years after publication of Dracula, the Ritz hotel was built alongside it.
Alchemy was popularly understood to be the mystical science of turning base metals into gold, but in fact it was a much broader discipline. Alchemy was more like a philosophy, incorporating ideas like transmutation, immortality and self-awareness.
The word "alchemy" stems from the Arabic "al-kimia" meaning "the art of transformation". However the earliest alchemists are believed to have worked in China or the Persian Empire. Modern inorganic chemistry owes much to early alchemical investigations.
‘Hasten slowly’ (Latin).
This may refer to the story of Faust.
Faust is a successful doctor or alchemist, but dissatisfied with his life he sells his soul to the devil in exchange for knowledge and pleasure. Although he seems to get what he asks for, he ends up condemned to an eternity in Hell.
The Faust story has been reworked through the ages and appears in many forms. Best known are two plays: Doctor Faustus by Christopher Marlowe (1564-1593), and Faust by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749 - 1832).