Geneva in Switzerland, and home of Calvinism, was one of the great centres of the reformation in Europe. The city had declared itself a republic in 1536, after its Catholic bishop had been forced to leave in 1532. John Calvin was based in the city from 1536 until his death in 1564. The Reformation Wall, built into the old wall of the city, depicts Guillame Farel, John Calvin, Theodore de Beze and John Knox.
Strasbourg too was a centre of the Reformation. Largely Protestant, it was home to humanist scholarship and book-printing. Both its intellectual and political influence contributed to the establishment of Protestantism in south-west Germany.