"Machiavelli"
Statue of Niccolo Machiavelli by Lorenzo Bartiloni outside the Uffizi, Florence
Public DomainStatue of Niccolo Machiavelli by Lorenzo Bartiloni outside the Uffizi, Florence - Credit: Wikimedia Commons

Niccolo Machiavelli, Renaissance humanist, philosopher and writer, is best known for his work The Prince, published in 1532, after the death of Machiavelli in 1527 at the age of 58.  The Prince contains advice to a ruler on the acquisition and the retaining of power, and the means necessary to do both.