The founder of Arminianism, Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609), was a Dutch theologian. His beliefs shared many doctrinal issues with the Calvinists but differed over others, such as predestination and salvation. He believed that God elected those to be saved on condition of their belief, rather than the unconditional selection by God. The debate between the Arminians, (including the First Baptists of the 17th century) and the Calvinists (including Presbyterians) spread into England.
Anglo-Catholicism developed from the Oxford Movement, a group of High-Church Anglicans in the 19th century. The movement takes its name from Oxford University, with which many of its members were associated. Their aim was to reinstate what they believed were traditions of faith and belief that had, over the years, become lost to the Anglican Church During the early stages of the movement, in the 1830s, they argued for the reinstatement of much of the liturgy, a large part of which was medieval, in order to brighten the church services they felt had become too mundane. In the movement's view, Anglo-Catholicism was one of the trinity of true churches; Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism being the other two.