Pope Paul IV, Gian Petro Caraffa, (1476-1559) was Pope from 1555 until his death. Coming from a prominent Neapolitan family, he spent time in both England and Spain, where he apparently developed a detestation of all things Spanish. While Archbishop of Naples, he organised the re-introduction of the Inquisition in Italy. His severe, unbending views, and his hatred of Spain made him a surprise choice as Pope, as did his advanced years. But it seems that because the Spanish Emperor Charles V was opposed to his appointment, Gian Petro Caraffa accepted.
His intolerance extended beyond Protestantism to all non-Catholics and, indeed, any Catholics that did not conform to his own views. During his tenure as Pope, he created the Roman Ghetto where all Jews had to wear distinguishing colours and had to remain locked in at night. The Inquisition was enforced to such an extent that even cardinals could not be assured of safety. Amongst his other acts, such as ordering Michelangelo to cover up the nudes in his paintings (which he refused to do), Pope Paul also refused to acknowledge Elizabeth's claim to the English throne, thereby alienating Protestants in England.
The founder of Arminianism, Jacobus Arminius (1560-1609), was a Dutch theologian. His beliefs shared many doctrinal issues with the Calvinists but differed over others, such as predestination and salvation. He believed that God elected those to be saved on condition of their belief, rather than the unconditional selection by God. The debate between the Arminians, (including the First Baptists of the 17th century) and the Calvinists (including Presbyterians) spread into England.
Anglo-Catholicism developed from the Oxford Movement, a group of High-Church Anglicans in the 19th century. The movement takes its name from Oxford University, with which many of its members were associated. Their aim was to reinstate what they believed were traditions of faith and belief that had, over the years, become lost to the Anglican Church During the early stages of the movement, in the 1830s, they argued for the reinstatement of much of the liturgy, a large part of which was medieval, in order to brighten the church services they felt had become too mundane. In the movement's view, Anglo-Catholicism was one of the trinity of true churches; Orthodoxy and Roman Catholicism being the other two.
Edmund Bonner (1500-1569), Bishop of London who supported Henry VIII in the break with the Church in Rome but who later disagreed with the Protestant Protector Somerset's religious reforms during the reign of Edward VI, he became notorious, and gained his nickname of 'bloody Bonner," during Mary's persecution of heretics. Things changed when Elizabeth succeeded her sister and Bonner was eventually imprisoned in 1568. There he spent the rest of his life, dying in the Marshalsea on 5 September 1569.
St Bartholomew's Fair held in Smithfield, London, was one of the largest and most important of the Charter Fairs to be held in the capital. Royal Charters authorising street fairs dated back to the Middle Ages and although their popularity declined from about the 15th century, some have recently been revived, but from cultural interest rather than as commercial outlets for goods, which was their original purpose. During the traditional three days of the fair, goods were sold in abundance, including cloth, spices, waxes and exotic foodstuffs.
As the name of its sight suggests, Bartholomew's Fair sold cloth in bulk, often direct to wealthy customers, bypassing the city merchants until it became the largest cloth sale in the country, with an international reputation. First granted a Royal Charter in 1133 in order to raise funds for the Priory of St Bartholomew, the fair continued annually until the city authorities put a stop to it in 1855 on the grounds of encouraging debauchery and public disorder.
Originating in medieval England with Edward III, the Most Noble Order of the Garter is an order of chivalry, or knighthood. It is bestowed, and is the highest honour after peerage. Comprising of no more than the sovereign, the Prince of Wales and up to twenty four others, new orders are given on 23 April, St George's Day, the day of the patron saint of England.
St George, one of the most celebrated of military saints worldwide, within the Christian Church, is believed to have been a Roman soldier and a priest. Best known for defeating the dragon, this story seems to have been brought back with the Crusaders and became popularised over the centuries. A dragon, which had been terrorising a community, demands a daily sacrifice to let them use the well for water. One day the sacrificial victim happens to be a princess. St George duly slays the dragon and rescues the princess. In gratitude the king, her father, and all the people convert to Christianity.
St George's Day had been a feast day in England since 1222, although it is no longer, and Edward III put his Order of the Garter under the flag of St George in around 1348.
As Elizabeth I died without leaving an heir, the English throne passed, in 1603, to the Scottish King James VI, the first Stuart King of England, and a Catholic. James I of England, as he became, had been King James VI of Scotland since 24 July 1567 when he was only thirteen months old. His mother, Mary, Queen of Scots, had been forced to abdicate in her son's favour and Scotland was ruled by regents until James reached his majority in 1578.
James's mother Mary, Queen of Scots, and his father, Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley, were both great grandchildren of Henry VII, through Margaret Tudor, Henry VIII's older sister. When Elizabeth died without leaving, or naming, an heir, James was the closest successor in terms of royal pedigree. James ruled both England and Scotland for a further twenty two years.
The word Marshalsea is the same as 'Marshalcy', that is, the rank of a marshal in the army.
The name Marshalsea was applied to a prison in Southwark, London, on the banks of the Thames (shown with a blue dot on the above map). The prison was in existence from 1329 or earlier until it was closed in 1842. It was notorious as a debtors' prison where conditions, and life expectancy, varied depending on how much a prisoner could afford to pay. It was run privately for profit; the length of sentence depended largely on the whim of a prisoner's creditors. The father of Charles Dickens spent time in the Marshalsea for debt. It was also used to hold men awaiting sentence under court martial for crimes committed at sea and, during Elizabeth's reign, Catholics charged with sedition. It was where the infamous 'bloody' Bishop Bonner spent his last days.