Thomas Arnold, headmaster of Rugby School 1828-1841
Ash Wednesday
The first day of Lent and 46 days before Easter
Battle of Stoke
16 June 1487 a battle during the Wars of the Roses in which Henry VII defeated a Yorkist army
Bernadino Ochino
Italian reformer (1487-1564)
Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy
Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius (480-524/5) Christian philosopher born in Rome
Bury St Edmunds
A market town in Suffolk
Cardinal Wolsey
Thomas Wolsey (1473-29 November 1530) Rose to great heights under Henry VIII but was beheaded in 1530.
Charles V
1500-1558. King of Spain and Holy Roman Emperor. Father of Philip II of Spain
Chiltern Hundreds
A Hundred is a traditional division of a county
chrisom cloth
traditionally the face cloth laid over the face of the child at their christening
The first place the queen visited upon eventually leaving her chamber was church as a woman was considered to be imupure after childbirth
A hood-like cap
The final church service of the day in the Christian church
Someone who treats something with contempt
Defender of the Faith
A title granted to Henry VIII by the Pope, mainly for Henry's treatise on the sanctity of marriage and the supremacy of the Pope.
Duke of Anjou
In 1577 negotiations were opened for the marriage of the Duke of Anjou (Francis III of France) to Elizabeth I
A charity school for poor boys founded by Henry VI in 1441, now one of the most expensive public school in England
Bronze coin equal to one fourth of a penny. Withdrawn in 1961
Gentlemen Pensioners
Bodyguard to the sovereign, now called Her Majesty's Bodyguard of the Honourable Corps of Gentlemen at Arms
A corrupt political practice of manipulating electoral boundaries
Great North Road
The A1 connecting London with Edinburgh
The Hapsburgs were one of the foremost royal houses in Europe, dominated in Henry's time by Charles V of Spain, a nephew of Catherine's.
Horse Guards Parade
A large parade ground off Whitehall in London
Name of the part of the River Thames that runs through Oxford
Benjamin Jowett (1814-1893) Master of Balliol College, Oxford
Kett's Revolt 1549
A rebellion over the issue of enclosure of property in Norfolk
Knights of St John of Jerusalem
A major Order of Chivalry, dating back to the Crusades
Knights of the Bath
Order of chivalry whose name derives from the Medieval ceremony of creating a knight involved bathing in order to purify
Knights of the carpet
Knights created by the sovereign rather than earned, e.g. in battle
La Serenissima
La Serenissima Repubblica di Venizia (English - The Most Serene Republic of Venice)
In Christianity, the season of fasting lasting from Ash Wednesday for 40 days until Easter
Letters patent
An open or public proclamation
Lie circumstantial
Lying about the circumstances of the accusation
Lord Chamberlain
A senior official at the royal court in the UK, he is responsible for organising royal events
A medieval town in Shropshire on the Welsh borders and therefore strategically important. Prince Arthur spent much of his time there as Prince of Wales and died there in 1502
One of the seven historic gates of London and, since the 12th century, a prison
Observant friars
Most commonly known as Franciscans, founded by St Francis of Assisi
an authoratitive decree
Paul's Cross
Open-air pulpit and preaching place outside Old St Paul's Cathedral
Sperical ornaments
In theology the doctrine that all events have been willed by God
In Greek mythology a champion of mankind who stole fire from Zeus who punished him by having him chained to a rock and his liver eaten every day for eternity by an eagle.
puerperal fever
septicaemia contracted after childbirth
Purbeck marble
Limestone quarried from Purbeck in Dorset
Queen Dowager
Title usually held by the widow of a king
Queen regent
A queen who reigns of behalf of another
Queen regnant
A queen who rules on her own behalf
Reproof valiant
A game at which two can play: quid pro quo
Reserved sacrament
A portion of the consecrated bread and wine set aside after the Eucharist
Rounded decorations
Sauve qui peut
State of panic; rout
In Greek mythology a hideous sea monster on one side of a strait to its counterpart, Charybdis.
Tent-like canopy
St Basil
Basil of Caesarea (330-379) an influential 4th century theologian and monastic
St Quintin
The Spanish won the Battle of St Quintin during the Franco-Habsburg War in 1557
a surcoat decorated with the royal coat of arms
Te deums
Hymn of praise to God
The Cam
River that runs through Cambridge
The Painter-Stainers company
The Worshipful Company of Painter-Stainers, one of the Livery Companies of the City of London
A yard used for jousting
Ornamental rib-work in Gothic windows
Roman Catholic belief in the change of substance of the host bread and the sacrificial wine into the blood and body of Christ
Literary device
Twelfth Night
Festival marking the coming of the epiphany and the end of the Christmas period
wainscot screen
A wood screen, probably made oak
Wars of the Roses
A series of civil wars between two opposing branches, the Yorkists and the Lancastrians, of the Royal House of Platangenet mainly between 1455 and 1485.
Welsh Marches
Area of land between Wales and England, bordering both
County town of Hampshire and ancient capital of Wessex
Wisdom of Solomon
One of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible
In the Elizabethan age, commonly, a small, prosperous farmer