"Obersturmbannführer"

Obersturmbannführer SS collar patch
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeObersturmbannführer SS collar patch - Credit: Wikimedia Commons, Rama
Obersturmbannführer was a Nazi rank used in both the SS and SA. It filled the need for an additional officer grade above Sturmbannführer as the SA expanded. It was the German equivalent of a Lieutenant Colonel and roughly translates as 'Senior assault unit leader'.

Many notorious Nazis held the rank, such as Rudolf Höss, instrumental in the creation of Auschwitz, Adolf Eichmann, instrumental in the 'Final Solution', and Herbert Kappler, the Gestapo Chief of Rome responsible for the Ardeatine massacre.

The rank of Obersturmbannführer was marked by four silver pips and a stripe on the left collar on an SS uniform.