The golliwogg was a character in children's books of the late-19th century, and was also manufactured as a rag doll. These dolls and toys were popular in the US, Europe and Australia right up to the 1960s.
The dolls are characterised by their black skin, white-rimmed eyes, big red lips and frizzy hair, a caricature of a black person. The dolls are still controversial, with some viewing them as a piece of cultural history that should be preserved, and others regarding them as offensive and the product of a time that should not be cherished. Associations with racism have severely diminished their popularity, and they are not commonly manufactured.
'Tommy' and 'Jerry' were terms used to refer to British and German soldiers respectively.
The names are not related to the 'Tom and Jerry' cartoons. 'Tommy' comes from the generic nickname for a British foot soldier, Tommy Atkins, which dates back to the nineteenth century. 'Jerry' was first used in the First World War, and probably derives from 'German'.
Staccato is a musical term meaning detached or unconnected, indicated by small dots above or below the notes.