Page 166. " All right. Mauve "

A sample of the dyed silk
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeA sample of the dyed silk - Credit: Henry Rzepa
Mauve, the pale lavender-lilac colour, originated in an accident. In 1856, chemist Sir William Henry Perkin was trying to manufacture quinine. He got some residue caught in his eye, which ended up being the first aniline dye, mauve. Perkins was able to sell his accidental discovery to the dyestuffs industry, and mauve became extremely popular in fashion. Thomas Beer dubbed the 1890s 'The Mauve Decade' and wrote a book on the subject. Perkins's discovery also encouraged manufacturers to render colours chemically rather than through natural sources, making chemistry a more profitable career area.

Page 174. " golliwog "
Golliwogg dolls on sale in 2008
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeGolliwogg dolls on sale in 2008 - Credit: Wikimedia Commons, alx_chief

The golliwogg was a character in children's books of the late-19th century, and was also manufactured as a rag doll. These dolls and toys were popular in the US, Europe and Australia right up to the 1960s.

The dolls are characterised by their black skin, white-rimmed eyes, big red lips and frizzy hair, a caricature of a black person. The dolls are still controversial, with some viewing them as a piece of cultural history that should be preserved, and others regarding them as offensive and the product of a time that should not be cherished. Associations with racism have severely diminished their popularity, and they are not commonly manufactured.

Page 175. " the Jerries "

'Tommy' and 'Jerry' were terms used to refer to British and German soldiers respectively.

The names are not related to the 'Tom and Jerry' cartoons.  'Tommy' comes from the generic nickname for a British foot soldier, Tommy Atkins, which dates back to the nineteenth century.  'Jerry' was first used in the First World War, and probably derives from 'German'.

Page 175. " staccato "
E note with a staccato
Public Domain Note with a staccato notation - Credit: Wikimedia Commons, Carport

Staccato is a musical term meaning detached or unconnected, indicated by small dots above or below the notes.