There are many different kinds of blue gentians, all of which belong to the plant group Gentiana.
Blue gentians which grow in the Swiss Alps include the alpine or snow gentian, the spring gentian and the trumpet gentian.
There are over 100 different kinds of rock rose in the plant group known as Helianthemum. Their flowers may be yellow, white or pink.
Yellow rock roses which grow in the Swiss Alps include the alpine rock rose and the common rock rose.
Primula is the name given to all sorts of primroses, cowslips and oxslips which belong to the plant group Primula.
Click here to see pictures of other Alpine flowers.
Birds of prey to be found in Switzerland include the golden eagle, the common buzzard, the common kestrel, the peregrine falcon and the red kite.
Today, we would probably call it a rucksack or backpack.
Breeds of dairy goat found in Switzerland include Toggenberg, Alpine, Saanen and Oberhasli.
Goats and cattle which graze in the Swiss Alps wear bells around their necks. This means they are easy to find when the time comes for them to be milked.
The Swiss Alps are famous for their beautiful and dramatic sunsets.
On the Swiss side, it is in the canton of Graubünden (Grisons), overlooking the part of the Rhine Valley in which Heidi is set.
It is on the border between the Swiss canton of Graubünden (Grisons) and the Austrian province of Vorarlberg.
French goatmilk cheeses are usually soft. In Heidi, the grandfather toasts his goat cheese which suggests it is a hard cheese. If you click on this link, you can see a picture of a rare Swiss hard goatmilk cheese from the Zuri Oberland, southeast of Zurich.
Wool spinning is the process of drawing out thread from an animal fleece, such as a sheep's fleece.
In the painting on the right, the distaff is particularly prominent; the spinning wheel is behind the little boy.
Spinning wheels are still used today, but the spinner usually wears the distaff on her/his wrist.
Many houses in Switzerland, both old-fashioned and modern, have window shutters. However, as may be seen from the pictures below, taken close to the period in which Heidi was written, the design of Swiss Alpine chalets was very varied.
A manger is a wooden, metal, or stone trough from which animals eat (especially horses and cattle).
The word is linked to the French word mangeoire, which itself comes from the French word manger, which means to eat
The word manger will remind many people of Jesus' birth at Bethlehem, as described in the Christian Bible:
And she brought forth her firstborn son, and wrapped him in swaddling clothes, and laid him in a manger; because there was no room for them in the inn. (Luke 2:7 - King James version).