Page 276. " I must telegraph at once to your father in Paris "
Telegram from S.A, Andrée to Alfred Nobel (1896)
Public DomainTelegram from S.A, Andrée to Alfred Nobel (1896) - Credit: S.A. Andrée

To telegraph means to send a telegram. A telegram is a message sent by electric signal from one place to another.  In the past, telegrams were used for urgent messages as they could be sent and delivered very quickly.

Sending telegrams was made possible by work done in the first half of the 19th century on a system known as the electric telegraph. The signals sent could be translated into words. Early work on developing electric telegraph systems was done by many individuals, including Samuel Morse in America and Baron Paul Schilling von Constatt in Russia. The first telegram was sent by Samuel Morse in 1844.

Telegrams are still sent in a large number of countries. In some of these countries, they continue to be used to carry serious and urgent messages; in others, telegrams are seen as an amusing way of sending messages such as birthday greetings or invitations.

The telegram pictured is written in Swedish. It was sent to Alfred Nobel, founder of the Nobel Prize, in 1896.

 

Page 286. " And those strong clasp-knives which made short work of cutting hazel twigs "
Clasp knives (pre 1904)
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeClasp-knives (pre 1904) - Credit: Tropenmuseum of the Royal Tropical Institute (KIT)

 

Swiss Army knife
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeSwiss Army knife - Credit: Stan Dalone
Swiss Army knife
Creative Commons AttributionSwiss Army knife - Credit: Emilian Robert Vicol

A clasp-knife (sometimes known as a penknife, pocket-knife or jack-knife) is a knife whose blade folds into its handle. Sometimes, clasp-knives will have more than one blade.

One of the most elaborate and well-known clasp-knives is the Swiss Army knife, which was manufactured for the first time in 1891.

The Swiss Army knife has one or two blades, and various other attachments, which include a toothpick and a corkscrew.