Page 57. " When the March sun began to melt the snow on the slopes, the first snowdrops came out "
Snowdrops (Galanthus nivalis)
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeSnowdrops (Galanthus nivalis) - Credit: Anne Burgess
Snowdrop (Galanthus nivalis)
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeSnowdrop (Galanthus nivalis) - Credit: Darkone

There are about twenty different types of snowdrop in the plant group Galanthus; all flowers in this group grow from bulbs.

The snowdrop which may be seen in the Swiss Alps is the common snowdrop. Its Latin name is  Galanthus nivalis.

In some parts of Europe, snowdrops may flower as early as January.

Page 66. " She must find black bread almost too hard to eat now "

Dark rye bread and Gruyère cheese
Creative Commons AttributionDark rye bread and Gruyère cheese - Credit: Dan4thNicholas
Black bread is a dark bread made from rye flour.

Rye is a crop grown in many countries throughout the world, especially in Russia, Poland and Germany.

Rye bread, made with various amounts of rye flour, is popular today in countries such as Russia, Poland, Austria, Finland and Denmark.

Click here to see a rye bread recipe.

Page 69. " The house in Frankfurt to which Heidi was being taken belonged to a wealthy man called Mr Sesemann "
German edition of 'Heidi' part 1 (1887)
Public DomainGerman edition of 'Heidi' part 1 (1887) - Credit: original artist unknown

As Heidi was written in German, some translations keep to the German way of saying things. So, in some versions of Heidi, Mr Sesemann is called Herr Sesemann, and the housekeeper Miss Rottenmeier is called Fräulein Rottenmeier.

Johanna Spyri wrote Heidi in two parts. The first part is called Heidis Lehr - und Wanderjahre ('Heidi's years of learning and travel'); the second part is called Heidi kann brauchen, was es gelernt ('Heidi makes use of what she has learned').


Click here to see the German version of Heidi.




Page 75. " I'd have to take a dose of cod-liver oil "

Old-fashioned bottle of cod liver oil
Creative Commons AttributionOld-fashioned bottle of cod liver oil - Credit: User: Mattes
Cod liver oil, as its name suggests, is made from the livers of cod fish.

It is high in vitamin A and vitamin D, and has traditionally been given to children to keep them healthy.

Most people do not like the taste of cod liver oil. Nowadays it can be taken in tasteless gelatin capsules. When Heidi was written in 1880, it would have to be taken from a spoon.