Demosthenes was a statesman and orator of Athens in the 4th century BC. He learned the art of rhetoric by studying famous speeches of past orators, and became a very successful public speaker and speech-writer. He famously warned Athens of the dangers of Macedon’s expansion in speeches against its ruler, Philip. Philip conquered the Greek states in 338 BC. Cicero considered Demosthenes “the perfect orator,” and used his tirades against Philip as the inspiration for his own later speeches against Mark Antony.