"one of its dead rulers, King Ptolemy the something-or-other"
Hellenistic Kingdoms as divided after Alexander's death (Ptolemaic territory is coloured dark purplish-blue)
GNU Free Documentation LicenseHellenistic Kingdoms as divided after Alexander's death (Ptolemaic territory is coloured dark purplish-blue) - Credit: Maksim/Wikimedia Commons

Since the death of Alexander the Great, when his newly-won empire was divided amongst his generals, Egypt had been ruled by Ptolemaic kings and queens, the descendents of Ptolemy I. They were treated as pharaohs by the ancient Egyptians. The famous Cleopatra (ruling Egypt between 51 and 30 BC) was a Ptolemaic ruler.

A Greek-Style Bust of Cleopatra
Public DomainA Greek-Style Bust of Cleopatra - Credit: Louis le Grand/Wikimedia Commons
Cleopatra Represented as an Egyptian Goddess
GNU Free Documentation LicenseCleopatra Represented as an Egyptian Goddess - Credit: George Shuklin/Wikimedia Commons