" Xenophon had some primitive version nearly four centuries before me "
Xenophon (c.430 - 354 BC) was an ancient Athenian soldier and writer.
" Ah, of course, they are all your damned hieroglyphics "
was a form of writing using small pictures and symbols used by the ancient Egyptians.
" one of its dead rulers, King Ptolemy the something-or-other "
Hellenistic Kingdoms as divided after Alexander's death (Ptolemaic territory is coloured dark purplish-blue) - Credit: Maksim/Wikimedia Commons
Since the death of Alexander the Great, when his newly-won empire was divided amongst his generals, Egypt had been ruled by Ptolemaic kings and queens, the descendents of Ptolemy I. They were treated as pharaohs by the ancient Egyptians. The famous Cleopatra (ruling Egypt between 51 and 30 BC) was a Ptolemaic ruler.
" that extraordinary piece of invective which all the world knows by the name of In toga candida. "
The toga candida
was a bright white toga worn by candidates for public office. The remaining fragments of this speech can be read here
, with commentator’s notes indented.