Page 432. " Xenophon had some primitive version nearly four centuries before me "

 Xenophon (c.430 - 354 BC) was an ancient Athenian soldier and writer.

         

Page 435. " Ah, of course, they are all your damned hieroglyphics "

Hieroglyphics on a Fragment of Papyrus
Public DomainHieroglyphics on a Fragment of Papyrus - Credit: Vincnet/Wikimedia Commons
 Hieroglyphics was a form of writing using small pictures and symbols used by the ancient Egyptians.

Hieroglyphics Typical of the Graeco-Roman period
GNU Free Documentation LicenseHieroglyphics Typical of the Graeco-Roman period - Credit: NaySay/Wikimedia Commons

Page 437. " one of its dead rulers, King Ptolemy the something-or-other "
Hellenistic Kingdoms as divided after Alexander's death (Ptolemaic territory is coloured dark purplish-blue)
GNU Free Documentation LicenseHellenistic Kingdoms as divided after Alexander's death (Ptolemaic territory is coloured dark purplish-blue) - Credit: Maksim/Wikimedia Commons

Since the death of Alexander the Great, when his newly-won empire was divided amongst his generals, Egypt had been ruled by Ptolemaic kings and queens, the descendents of Ptolemy I. They were treated as pharaohs by the ancient Egyptians. The famous Cleopatra (ruling Egypt between 51 and 30 BC) was a Ptolemaic ruler.

A Greek-Style Bust of Cleopatra
Public DomainA Greek-Style Bust of Cleopatra - Credit: Louis le Grand/Wikimedia Commons
Cleopatra Represented as an Egyptian Goddess
GNU Free Documentation LicenseCleopatra Represented as an Egyptian Goddess - Credit: George Shuklin/Wikimedia Commons
Page 442. " that extraordinary piece of invective which all the world knows by the name of In toga candida. "

A Man Wearing a Toga
Public DomainA Man Wearing a Toga - Credit: Pearson Scott Foresman/Wikimedia Commons
The toga candida was a bright white toga worn by candidates for public office. The remaining fragments of this speech can be read here, with commentator’s notes indented.