Johannes Vermeer (1632-1675) was a Dutch painter, perhaps most famous for his masterpiece "Girl With A Pearl Earring". His work was known for its masterful use of light.
The Stanford-Binet IQ test was commissioned by the French government in 1905, who wanted to identify intellectually-deficient children in order to place them in special education programs. French psychologist Alfred Benet conceived of a way to test attention, memory and verbal skill.
Stanford psychologist Lewis Terman revised the test in 1916, shaping the Stanford-Binet model, which proved so effective that the American Pyschological Association used it to assess potential army recruits. The test has been modified over the years, with Mensa membership candidates requiring a score of 132.