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Creative Commons AttributionSmallpox - Credit: otisarchives1, Flickr
A disease caused by the virus Variola, smallpox was so named to distinguish it from the “great pox”, or syphilis.   It could be fatal, killing two million people per year in the 1960s, and the blisters that formed on the skin frequently left crater-like scars.   A successful worldwide vaccination campaign led to the complete eradication of smallpox.   The last known case occurred in 1978.