Page 104. " a disappointment about a green goose "

Geese (age unknown!)
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeGeese (age unknown!) - Credit: Kelly Cookson
 According to Oxford Dictionaries, a green goose is 'a goose that is killed when under four months old and eaten without stuffing'.

Page 105. " invited by the Miss Bertrams to join in a glee, she tripped off to the instrument "
'Singing to the Reverend' (Late Victorian depiction of early 19th century scene)
Public Domain'Singing to the Reverend' (Late Victorian depiction of early 19th century scene) - Credit: Edmund Blair Leighton

 A glee is a part song arranged for three or more voices, usually sung unaccompanied. Glees were generally intended for male voices, although they sometimes included a soprano part that might be sung by women. They were particularly popular between the mid 18th and the mid 19th centuries.

Unusually, here the suggestion is that the glee is to be sung to piano accompaniment, and by female voices.


Listen here and here to some glee music.

Page 106. " There's Arcturus looking very bright "
Depiction of Comet Donati (1858), published 1888. Arcturus to be seen at the comet's head
Public DomainDepiction of Comet Donati (1858), published 1888. Arcturus to be seen at the comet's head - Credit: E. Weiss

 Arcturus,  also known as alpha Boötis, is the brightest star in the constellation Boötes (the Herdsman). Viewed from Earth, it is the brightest star in the Northern Hemisphere and the fourth brighest star in the sky.

Page 106. " Yes, and the bear. I wish I could see Cassiopeia "
Ursa Major
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeUrsa Major - Credit: Stu10255

 The Great Bear, or Ursa Major, is a constellation visible throughout the year in most of the  northern hemisphere. Its seven brightest stars form the group known as the Big Dipper or the Plough.

Cassiopeia, situated opposite the Big Dipper, is a distinctive W-shaped constellation of the northern hemisphere.


Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeCassiopeia - Credit: Mike Durkin
Page 107. " of races and Weymouth, and parties and friends "
Statue of George III in Weymouth
Public DomainStatue of George III in Weymouth - Credit: Mark A. Wilson
Weymouth Bay (ca. 1816)
Public DomainWeymouth Bay (ca. 1816) - Credit: John Constable

 Weymouth is an English seaside town on the Dorset coast. It became a popular tourist attraction during the late 18th century when King George III (1738-1820) spent some summers there at Gloucester Lodge, the home of his brother, the Duke of Gloucester.




Google Map
Page 111. " A strange business this in America, Dr. Grant! "
'Columbia teaching John Bull his New Lesson' (1813 caricature on the Anglo-American War from an American perspective)
Public Domain'Columbia teaching John Bull his New Lesson' (1813 caricature on the Anglo-American War from an American perspective) - Credit: William Charles

 The interpretation of this remark depends to a large extent on the exact period in which the events of Mansfield Park are set. Various commentators have suggested different dates, ranging from 1803-6 to 1810-1813. Those who favour the later date have suggested Tom Bertram may be referring to the Anglo-American War (1812-1815).

Page 111. " I dare say you will have no objection to join us in a rubber "
Leather whist marker
Public DomainLeather whist marker - Credit: Charles Goodall

 Originating in the game of bowls, the term rubber also came to be used in cricket and tennis, and in card games such as whist, bridge, and cribbage. In these contexts, it has three different meanings. Firstly, it may refer to a series of 3 or 5 matches or games; secondly, it may refer to the winning of two games in such a series; thirdly, it may refer to the third game in a series which constitutes the tie-breaker.

Here, the reference is to a rubber of whist which was an extremely popular card game in the 18th and 19th centuries.

Page 112. " and though we play but half-crowns "
George IV crown (1821)
Creative Commons Attribution Share AlikeGeorge IV crown (1821) - Credit: Jerry "Woody"

 The half crown was a British coin in circulation between 1549 and 1970.

A crown was worth five shillings in pre-decimalisation currency. In today's money, a crown would be worth 25p, and a half crown 12.5p.

Page 114. " The play had been Lover's Vows, and Mr. Yates was to have been Count Cassel "
Title page of Lovers' Vows
Public DomainTitle page of Lovers' Vows - Credit: Elizabeth Inchbald

  Lovers' Vows (1798) was an English adaptation by Elizabeth Inchbald of the 1780 German play Das Kind der Liebe (literally, Child of Love) by August Von Kotzebue.

It was a great success when performed in London in 1798, and it was subsequently staged in various other towns and cities, including Bristol, Newcastle and Bath. Although popular, the play caused controversy as it dealt with issues of pre-marital sex and illegitimacy.

The character Count Cassel is a dandy who is rejected as a suitor by the character Amelia, who is in love with Anhalt, a poor clergyman.

Page 114. " Lord and Lady Ravenshaw left to act My Grandmother by themselves "

My Grandmother was a musical farce by Prince Hoare (1755-1834), first published in 1794.

As noted in the text, it was suitable to be used as an after-piece, which was a term given to a short piece, or farce, performed after the main play.

Page 115. " from Shylock to Richard III "
David Garrick as Richard III (1745)
Public DomainDavid Garrick as Richard III (1745) - Credit: William Hogarth

 Shylock is the Jewish moneylender in William Shakespeare's play, The Merchant of Venice.

Richard III is the title protagonist of another Shakespeare play.

Page 116. " so as it be a German play, no matter what, with a good tricking, shifting after-piece, and a figure-dance, and a hornpipe "
19th century sheet music for a hornpipe
Public Domain19th century sheet music for a hornpipe - Credit: Oliver Ditson

 Like the play on which Lovers' Vows was based, German plays presumably had a certain reputation, possibly a risqué one?

An archaic meaning of trick is to decorate or adorn in an extravagant way.

A figure-dance is one which consists of several distinct divisions, or figures.

A hornpipe is a lively dance (associated with sailors and often performed by one person only) as well as the name given to the music for such a dance. A hornpipe is also a type of musical instrument, although it is the dance that is being referred to here.

Listen to two hornpipes from Handel's Water Music here and here.

Page 118. " How many a time have we mourned over the dead body of Julius Caesar, and to be'd and not to be'd, in this very room "
John Philip Kemble as Hamlet in 1802
Public DomainJohn Philip Kemble as Hamlet in 1802 - Credit: Sir Thomas Lawrence

 Gaius Julius Caesar (100BC-44BC) was a Roman general and political leader who was assassinated by a group of Roman senators led by Marcus Junius Brutus. The murder is portrayed in William Shakespeare's play Julius Caesar, believed to have been written in 1599.

'To be, or not to be' is the opening line of a monologue spoken by Hamlet, the eponymous hero of a play by Shakespeare, believed to have been written between 1599 and 1601.

To be, or not to be, that is the question:
Whether 'tis nobler in the mind to suffer
The slings and arrows of outrageous fortune,
Or to take arms against a sea of troubles,
And by opposing end them?

Page 118. " And I am sure, my name was Norval, every evening of my life "

Norval is a character in the play Douglas, a tragedy by John Home, performed for the first time in Edinburgh in 1756.





Page 123. " Neither Hamlet, nor Macbeth, nor Othello, nor Douglas, nor the Gamester, presented anything that could satisfy even the tragedians "
'David Garrick and Mrs Pritchard in 'Macbeth''(1768)
Public Domain'David Garrick and Mrs Pritchard in 'Macbeth''(1768) - Credit: Johann Zoffany

 Hamlet, Macbeth and Othello are all tragedies by William Shakespeare.

Douglas is a tragedy by John Home (see bookmark p.118).

The Gamester is a play by James Shirley which deals with the issue of gambling. It was first performed in 1633, and first published in 1637. It is also the title of a play by Edward Moore (1712-1757) which also deals with gambling, and it is likely that it is Moore's play, rather than Shirley's, which is referred to here.


Page 123. " and the Rivals, the School for Scandal, Wheel of Fortune, Heir at Law, and a long etcetera "
Richard Brinsley Sheridan (pre 1792)
Public DomainRichard Brinsley Sheridan (pre 1792) - Credit: Sir Joshua Reynolds

  The Rivals and The School for Scandal are both plays by Richard Brinsely Sheridan (1751-1816). The former was first performed in 1775, and the latter in 1777.

The Wheel of Fortune (1795) is a play by Richard Cumberland (1732-1811).

Heir at Law (1808) is the title of a play by George Colman the Younger (1762-1836).

All the plays referred to are comedies.