Page 155. " You will not get to Newfoundland by studying the Atlantic that way "

Newfoundland  is Canada's easternmost province.

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Page 156. " If we did all that Plato or Aristotle or Confucius told us, we should get on a great deal better than we do. "

Bust of Plato
Creative Commons AttributionBust of Plato - Credit: © Marie-Lan Nguyen / Wikimedia Commons
What did Plato (429-347 BC) teach? "In many of Plato's writings, it is asserted or assumed that true philosophers—those who recognize how important it is to distinguish the one (the one thing that goodness is, or virtue is, or courage is) from the many (the many things that are called good or virtuous or courageous)—are in a position to become ethically superior to unenlightened human beings, because of the greater degree of insight they can acquire" (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Plato").

Bust of Aristotle
Creative Commons AttributionBust of Aristotle - Credit: Sting
Aristotle (384-322 BC) was a student of Plato's. "A key theme in Aristotle's thought is that happiness is the goal of life. Aristotle was a good deal less other-worldly than Plato. . . . The founder of logical theory, Aristotle believed that the greatest human endeavor is the use of reason in theoretical activity. One of his best known ideas was his conception of 'The Golden Mean' — 'avoid extremes,' the counsel of moderation in all things" (, "Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle").

Confucius's "influence in Chinese history [has been compared] with that of Socrates in the West." He lived from 551-479 BC and "was a thinker, political figure, educator, and founder of the Ru School of Chinese thought. His teachings, preserved in the Lunyu or Analects, form the foundation of much of subsequent Chinese speculation on the education and comportment of the ideal man, how such an individual should live his life and interact with others, and the forms of society and government in which he should participate" (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, "Confucius").

Page 157. " But when the Bible talks of our 'becoming' Sons of God "

John 1:12 (KJV): "But as many as received him, to them gave he power to become the sons of God, even to them that believe on his name." Cf. 1 John 3:1-2.

Page 157. " One of the creeds says that Christ is the Son of God 'begotten, not created'; and it adds 'begotten by his Father before all worlds'. "

There have been various creeds in Christendom over the years that have sought to codify a concise yet comprehensive statement of what Christians believe. Here Lewis refers to the Nicene Creed, which states in part, "I believe in one God, the Father Almighty, maker of heaven and earth, and of all things visible and invisible; And in one Lord Jesus Christ, the only begotten Son of God, begotten of his Father before all worlds. . . ." Information on the history of the Nicene Creed may be found here.

Page 157. " We are not now thinking about the Virgin Birth. "

The virgin birth is a foundational truth of Christianity. If Jesus Christ had an earthly father, He was merely a man like any other man--with a sin nature inherited from our first father, Adam--and therefore incapable of taking away His own sins, let alone anyone else's.

Several Bible passages refer to the virgin birth.

Isaiah 7:14 (Isaiah's words to King Ahaz):"Therefore the Lord himself will give you a sign. Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and shall call his name Immanuel" (ESV).

Matthew 1:18-25: "Now the birth of Jesus Christ took place in this way. When his mother Mary had been betrothed to Joseph, before they came together she was found to be with child from the Holy Spirit. And her husband Joseph, being a just man and unwilling to put her to shame, resolved to divorce her quietly. But as he considered these things, behold, an angel of the Lord appeared to him in a dream, saying, “Joseph, son of David, do not fear to take Mary as your wife, for that which is conceived in her is from the Holy Spirit. She will bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus, for he will save his people from their sins.” All this took place to fulfill what the Lord had spoken by the prophet:

"Behold, the virgin shall conceive and bear a son, and they shall call his name Immanuel

"(which means, God with us). When Joseph woke from sleep, he did as the angel of the Lord commanded him: he took his wife, but knew her not until she had given birth to a son. And he called his name Jesus" (ESV).

Luke 1:26-35: "In the sixth month the angel Gabriel was sent from God to a city of Galilee named Nazareth, to a virgin betrothed to a man whose name was Joseph, of the house of David. And the virgin's name was Mary. And he came to her and said, 'Greetings, O favored one, the Lord is with you!'But she was greatly troubled at the saying, and tried to discern what sort of greeting this might be. And the angel said to her, 'Do not be afraid, Mary, for you have found favor with God. And behold, you will conceive in your womb and bear a son, and you shall call his name Jesus. He will be great and will be called the Son of the Most High. And the Lord God will give to him the throne of his father David, and he will reign over the house of Jacob forever, and of his kingdom there will be no end.'

"And Mary said to the angel, 'How will this be, since I am a virgin?'

"And the angel answered her, 'The Holy Spirit will come upon you, and the power of the Most High will overshadow you; therefore the child to be born will be called holy— the Son of God'" (ESV).

Page 162. " In God's dimension, so to speak, you find a being who is three Persons while remaining one Being "

In this chapter Lewis tackles the Christian doctrine of the Trinity: one God in three Persons (Father, Son, and Holy Spirit [or Holy Ghost]). "The most difficult thing about the Christian concept of the Trinity is that there is no way to perfectly and completely understand it. The Trinity is a concept that is impossible for any human being to fully understand, let alone explain. God is infinitely greater than we are; therefore, we should not expect to be able to fully understand Him. . . . The Father is God, the Son is God, and the Holy Spirit is God—but there is only one God. That is the biblical doctrine of the Trinity" (

The word "Trinity" does not occur in Scripture. But the idea of a three-in-one God is expressed in passages such as the following.

Matthew 3:16-17 (KJV): "And Jesus [the Son], when he was baptized, went up straightway out of the water: and, lo, the heavens were opened unto him, and he saw the [Holy] Spirit of God descending like a dove, and lighting upon him: And lo a voice from heaven [the Father], saying, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased."

2 Corinthians 13:14 (KJV):"The grace of the Lord Jesus Christ, and the love of God, and the communion of the Holy Ghost, be with you all. Amen."

Click on the link above for a pretty good discussion of this difficult topic.

Page 166. " Time and Beyond Time "

The original audio tape for this address survives and can be listened to in the YouTube video below.

Page 169. " How could He at the same time be God who knows everything and also a man asking his disciples 'Who touched me?' "

Here Lewis refers to Mark 5:24-34 (cf. Luke 8:43-48) (KJV), one of many miracles of healing performed by Christ:

And Jesus went with him; and much people followed him, and thronged him. And a certain woman, which had an issue of blood twelve years, And had suffered many things of many physicians, and had spent all that she had, and was nothing bettered, but rather grew worse, When she had heard of Jesus, came in the press behind, and touched his garment. For she said, If I may touch but his clothes, I shall be whole. And straightway the fountain of her blood was dried up; and she felt in her body that she was healed of that plague.

And Jesus, immediately knowing in himself that virtue had gone out of him, turned him about in the press, and said, Who touched my clothes?

And his disciples said unto him, Thou seest the multitude thronging thee, and sayest thou, Who touched me?

And he looked round about to see her that had done this thing. But the woman fearing and trembling, knowing what was done in her, came and fell down before him, and told him all the truth. And he said unto her, Daughter, thy faith hath made thee whole; go in peace, and be whole of thy plague.

Page 169. " His life as the man Jesus in Palestine "

Palestine is or has also been known as the Holy Land, the Land of Israel, Zion, and Canaan, among others. The modern State of Israel, which was established in 1948, did not exist when Lewis was giving his Broadcast Talks in the early 1940s. You may access the Official Site for Tourism in Palestine here.

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Page 170. " But if He knows I am going to do so-and-so, how can I be free to do otherwise? "

See the second Bookmark for page 47 for a discussion of the paradox of man's free will vs. the sovereignty of God.

Isaiah 46:9-10 (KJV): "I am God, and there is none else; I am God, and there is none like me, Declaring the end from the beginning, and from ancient times the things that are not yet done, saying, My counsel shall stand, and I will do all my pleasure."

Page 173. " The Son exists because the Father exists: but there never was a time before the Father produced the Son. "

Lewis may have in mind the opening passage of John 1, which uses the phrase "the Word" to refer to Jesus Christ: "In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God" (John 1:1-2, ESV).

Lewis speaks further about Christ as "the Word" when he says, "He is the self-expression of the Father--what the Father has to say" (pp. 173-74).

Page 174. " The Father delights in His Son; the Son looks up to His Father. "

Matthew, Mark, and Luke all include passages in which God the Father speaks, expressing His delight in and approval of Christ as His "beloved Son." One occurrence was after Christ was baptized (Luke 3:22: "And the Holy Ghost descended in a bodily shape like a dove upon him, and a voice came from heaven, which said, Thou art my beloved Son; in thee I am well pleased") and another was after His transfiguration (Matt. 17:5: "While he yet spake, behold, a bright cloud overshadowed them: and behold a voice out of the cloud, which said, This is my beloved Son, in whom I am well pleased; hear ye him").

You may find all such passages here.

Christ proved that He "looked up to His Father" (i.e., obeyed Him implicitly) on more than one occasion. John 8:28-29 is one example: "Then said Jesus unto them, When ye have lifted up the Son of man, then shall ye know that I am he, and that I do nothing of myself; but as my Father hath taught me, I speak these things. And he that sent me is with me: the Father hath not left me alone; for I do always those things that please him." See also John 17, Christ's High Priestly Prayer.

Page 174. " All sorts of people are fond of repeating the Christian statement that 'God is love'. "

John 4:8, 16 (KJV): "He that loveth not knoweth not God; for God is love. . . . And we have known and believed the love that God hath to us. God is love; and he that dwelleth in love dwelleth in God, and God in him."