"‘The valley had hardly changed since the Mughal Empire’"

 

Flag of the Mughal Empire
Public DomainFlag of the Mughal Empire

The Mughal (or Mogul) Empire were an Islamic dynasty that ruled over most of India from the 16th to the 19th century.

Founded by the Emperor Babur in 1526 after his defeat of the last of the Delhi Sultans in battle, the Mughal Empire prospered into a vast wealthy kingdom, renowned for its glittering riches and beautiful architecture. Many of India’s most famous monuments were built by the Mughal emperors, including the Taj Mahal, and world heritage sites such as Humayun's Tomb, the Red Fort in Delhi and Agra Fort.

By 1556, under the rule of Emperor Akbar the Great, India became united despite internal conflict and much religious friction. The great wealth and beauty of the Mughal Empire soon attracted the eye of Europeans who started to turn to the East for trade and business. The Empire officially survived until 1858, when it was supplanted by British Imperial Rule.

Historic map of the reach of the Mughal Empire
Public DomainHistoric map of the reach of the Mughal Empire