Popularly known as Netaji ("Respected Leader"), Bose was leader of the Indian National Congress for two consecutive terms, from 1938-1939, but resigned after openly attacking the Congress' policies. Bose believed that the tactics of non-violence would never be sufficient to secure India's independence, and continued to call for the full and immediate independence of India from British rule.
He further advocated violent resistance as leader of the Azad Hind, or Indian Government-in-Exile which he established in Singapore in 1943 and at the outset of the Second World War, he left India, seeking alliances with Germany, Russia and Japan with the aim of attacking the British in India. Bose then re-organised and later led the Indian National Army, formed from Indian prisoners-of-war and plantation workers, alongside the Japanese Army against British forces at the Battle of Imphal in North East India. They suffered great loses and were pushed back in to Burma.